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Executive Summary Increased agricultural productivity is a major stepping stone on the path out of poverty, but farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia face tremendous challenges improving production. Poor soil, inefficient water use, and a lack of access to plant breeding resources, high-quality seed, and fuel and electricity—combined with some of the most extreme environmental conditions on Earth—have made yields in crop and animal production far lower in these regions than world averages. This report iden- tifies 60 emerging technologies with the potential to significantly improve agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Of these, 18 technologies are selected as priorities for immediate development and deep exploration (Table ES-1). “Tier I” tools and technologies are those that should be given the high- est priority for development into specific applications. Although these tech- nologies largely already exist, they are new from the perspective of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia because applications specific to the needs of farmers in these regions have not been developed or widely used. “Tier II” technologies include ideas that are emerging from advances in dif- ferent scientific fields. In concept, applications based on these technologies would have a great deal to offer farmers in the two regions. In general, technologies with the greatest potential impact on agricul- tural production in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are those that help to (1) manage the natural resource base supporting agriculture; (2) improve the genetic characteristics of crops and animals; (3) reduce biotic con- straints (such as disease, pests, weeds) that decrease yields; and (4) provide affordable, renewable energy for farmers. 

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 Emerging Technologies to Benefit Farmers TABLE ES-1  Priority Technologies and Applications for Improving Agriculture Tier II Focus of Tier I High Priority for Technology High Priority for Development Additional Exploration Natural • Soil management techniques • Soil-related nanomaterials Resources • Integrated water management • Manipulation of the rhizosphere Management • Climate and weather prediction • Remote sensing of plant physiology Improving • Annotated crop genomes • Site-specific gene integration Genetics of Crops • Genome-based animal breeding • Spermatogonial stem cell and Animals transplantation • Microbial genomics of the rumen Overcoming • Plant-mediated gene silencing Biotic Constraints • Biocontrol and biopesticides • Disease-suppressive soils • Animal vaccines Energy • Solar energy technologies Production • Photosynthetic microbe-based biofuels • Energy storage technology Although these technologies offer many opportunities to address the challenges to agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, a broader set of factors will influence the ability of a technology to have a positive impact on productivity: • A system-wide approach: Agricultural production is a complex system; consequently, agricultural technologies are interdependent. For example, it is difficult to improve livestock or increase meat or milk production if the animals are chronically infected with patho- gens and are fed low-quality, poorly digestible forages. Solving the problem of poor agricultural productivity requires a multifaceted approach. • Local expertise and participation: Agricultural technologies de- veloped in industrialized countries may not always work in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Crop breeding requires the evaluation of traits under local environmental conditions; weather prediction algorithms need data collected at the ground level; farmers need an opportunity to provide input and acquire informa- tion. These tasks require a committed, trained, local workforce—a

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Executive Summary  workforce of extension agents, scientists, veterinarians, and en- gineers that must be built with national efforts and international help. • Agricultural innovations for the developing world do not need to be “low” technology: Technologies addressing specific needs in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia might never materialize if they do not fill a niche in the industrialized world. As a result, important opportunities, such as the development of advanced off-the-grid electrical power, might be missed. Farmers need more than “old” or “low” technology. Incentives and support for the development of specific applications could deliver benefits faster than waiting for market forces to propel technological development. • Attention to the implications of climate change: Farmers in sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia already face severe environmental constraints. By all predictions, their livelihoods will be imperiled by the future consequences of global climate change, especially water scarcity. Comprehensive planning to alleviate the economic and ecological impacts of drought will be needed, as well as technolo- gies that increase the availability of water and efficiency of water use. A whole suite of approaches—some technological and some not—must come together for farmers to realize the benefit of any innovation. Scientists from all backgrounds have an opportunity to become involved in bringing these and other technologies to fruition. The opportunities identified in this report offer new approaches that can be used by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other actors to help transform agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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