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A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science Appendix A Committee Member Biographies Ronald M. Atlas (Chair), professor of biology and public health, and co-director of the Center for the Health Hazards Preparedness at the University of Louisville. He received his B.S. degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Rutgers University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he worked on Mars life detection. He is chair of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Planetary Protection Board, chair of the Wellcome Trust Infection, Immunology, and Population Health Strategy Committee, and and co-chair of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Task Force on Biodefense. He has previously served as president of the ASM. He has also previously served on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation Scientific Working Group on Bioforensics. His early research focused on oil spills, and he discovered bioremediation as part of his doctoral studies. Later he turned to the molecular detection of pathogens in the environment, which forms the basis for biosensors to detect biothreat agents. He is author of nearly 300 manuscripts and 20 books. He is a fellow in the American Academy of Microbiology and has received the ASM Award for Applied and Environmental Microbiology, the ASM Founders Award, the Edmund Youde Lectureship Award in Hong Kong, and an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Guelph.
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A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science Robert Cook-Deegan has been the Director of the Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy Center for Genome Ethics, Law, & Policy at Duke University since July 2002. Prior to coming to Duke, he was director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellowship program at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Dr. Cook-Deegan was a Cecil and Ida Green Fellow at the University of Texas, Dallas, following his work on the report Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology (the “Press report”). From 1991 through 1994, he directed IOM’s Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders (since renamed Neuroscience and Behavioral Health). He worked for the National Center for Human Genome Research (1989–1990), after serving as acting executive director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Congress (1988–1989). He is the author of The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome. Dr. Cook-Deegan was a congressional science fellow in 1982 and spent 5 years at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Cook-Deegan did 2 years of postdoctoral research on the molecular biology of oncogenes with Lasker Award scientist Raymond L. Erikson, after completing his internship in pathology at the University of Colorado (1979–1982). He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry, magna cum laude, in 1975 from Harvard College, and his M.D. degree from the University of Colorado in 1979. He is secretary and trustee of the Foundation for Genetic Medicine. Dr. Cook-Deegan was a member of the Board of Directors, Physicians for Human Rights (1988–1996), with whom he participated in human rights missions to Turkey, Iraq, and Panama. David Franz is vice president and chief biological scientist, Midwest Research Institute; director, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, Kansas State University; and deputy director, Center for Emergency Care and Preparedness, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Franz served in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command for 23 of 27 years on active duty and retired as colonel. He served as commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases and as deputy commander of the Medical Research and Materiel Command. Prior to joining the command, he served as group veterinarian for the 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne). Dr. Franz was the chief inspector on three UN Special Commission biological warfare inspection missions to Iraq, and served as technical adviser on long-term monitoring. He also served as a member of the first two U.S.–UK teams that visited Russia in support of the Trilateral Joint Statement on Biological Weapons and as a member of the Trilateral Experts’ Committee for biological weapons negotiations. Dr. Franz was technical editor for the Textbook of Military Medicine on Chemical and Biological Defense released in 1997. Current committee appointments
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A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science include the Defense Intelligence Agency Red Team Bio-Chem 2020, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee, the NAS Committee for Research with Russian Biological Institutes (chair), the NAS Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Department of Health and Human Services’ National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the recently decommissioned Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee. Dr. Franz holds an adjunct appointment as professor for the Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, and serves on the Dean’s Advisory Council. He also holds an adjunct appointment as professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Franz serves as a senior fellow in the Combating Terrorism Center of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Dr. Franz holds a D.V.M. from Kansas State University and a Ph.D. in physiology from Baylor College of Medicine. James Lepkowski is a research professor at the Institute for Social Research, where he conducts survey methodology research and directs the Summer Institute in Survey Research Techniques. He is a member of the faculty of the Joint University of Maryland–University of Michigan Program in Survey Methods, and is a professor in the Department of Biostatistics at the University of Michigan. Dr. Lepkowski received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1980. Since that time, he has worked at the Institute for Social Research designing, conducting, analyzing, and evaluating a variety of survey samples, including area probability and telephone samples of households. The substantive content of most of this work has been health or conditions that occur infrequently in the population. Dr. Lepkowski also has conducted investigations into a wide variety of survey methodology problems, including the design of telephone samples for households in the United States, the behavior of analytical statistics when the data are obtained from complex sample surveys, imputation methods to compensate for item missing data in surveys, weighting to compensate for unit nonresponse, and the interaction between interviewer and respondent in the survey interview. He has served on a variety of national and international advisory committees on survey research methods, including service to the World Health Organization, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Food and Drug Administration, the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and other federal statistical agencies. He is an active member of the American Statistical Association, serving in various offices in the Survey Research Methods Section and on association committees, is a fellow of the association, and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.
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A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science Francis Macrina is vice president for research and Edward Myers Professor at the Philips Institute of Oral and Craniofacial Molecular Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University. His honors include an NIH Research Career Development Award, the Virginia Outstanding Scientist Award, and the NIH NIDCR MERIT Award. His research focuses on human oral microbes. In addition, he has conducted educational research on the effectiveness of formal training in research ethics and is well known for the text Scientific Integrity: Text and Cases in Responsible Conduct of Research, currently in its third edition. He received his B.S. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in microbiology from Syracuse University. Kathleen Vogel is an assistant professor at Cornell University, with a joint appointment in the Department of Science and Technology Studies and the Peace Studies Program. Her research interests are biological warfare and bioterrorism; nonproliferation and arms control; and military technology and technology transfer. Before coming to Cornell, Dr. Vogel worked with the U.S. Department of State as a William C. Foster Fellow in the Bureau of Nonproliferation in the Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction. She holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Princeton University. Her current research explores the technical and social factors influencing the proliferation of biological weapons technology to terrorist groups and countries of proliferation concern. At Cornell, Dr. Vogel teaches “The Military and New Technology,” which analyzes technological innovation in the military; “The Dark Side of Biology: Biological Weapons, Bioterrorism, and Biocriminality,” which examines various analytical frameworks for evaluating biological weapons threats; and “Ethical Issues in Health and Medicine,” which explores ethical dilemmas and frameworks in the practice of medicine and the life sciences. Relevant recent publications include “Conversion at Stepnogorsk: What the Future Holds for Former Bioweapons Facilities” (Peace Studies Program Occasional Paper 2003); “Bioweapons Proliferation: Where Science Studies and Public Policy Collide” (Social Studies of Science 36:659–690, 2006).