Francis Macrina is vice president for research and Edward Myers Professor at the Philips Institute of Oral and Craniofacial Molecular Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University. His honors include an NIH Research Career Development Award, the Virginia Outstanding Scientist Award, and the NIH NIDCR MERIT Award. His research focuses on human oral microbes. In addition, he has conducted educational research on the effectiveness of formal training in research ethics and is well known for the text Scientific Integrity: Text and Cases in Responsible Conduct of Research, currently in its third edition. He received his B.S. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in microbiology from Syracuse University.


Kathleen Vogel is an assistant professor at Cornell University, with a joint appointment in the Department of Science and Technology Studies and the Peace Studies Program. Her research interests are biological warfare and bioterrorism; nonproliferation and arms control; and military technology and technology transfer. Before coming to Cornell, Dr. Vogel worked with the U.S. Department of State as a William C. Foster Fellow in the Bureau of Nonproliferation in the Office of Proliferation Threat Reduction. She holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Princeton University. Her current research explores the technical and social factors influencing the proliferation of biological weapons technology to terrorist groups and countries of proliferation concern. At Cornell, Dr. Vogel teaches “The Military and New Technology,” which analyzes technological innovation in the military; “The Dark Side of Biology: Biological Weapons, Bioterrorism, and Biocriminality,” which examines various analytical frameworks for evaluating biological weapons threats; and “Ethical Issues in Health and Medicine,” which explores ethical dilemmas and frameworks in the practice of medicine and the life sciences. Relevant recent publications include “Conversion at Stepnogorsk: What the Future Holds for Former Bioweapons Facilities” (Peace Studies Program Occasional Paper 2003); “Bioweapons Proliferation: Where Science Studies and Public Policy Collide” (Social Studies of Science 36:659–690, 2006).



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