Appendix D
Additional Data and Analysis

TABLE D-1 Survey Questions and Number of Responses for Each Question

Question

Number of Responsesa

1. Have you ever conducted research or managed others’ research in the life sciences?

1,950

2. Have you made any changes in how you conduct or manage research because of concerns that knowledge, tools, or techniques from your research might be deliberately misused to facilitate bioterrorism?

 

I decided against conducting a specific research project/experiment

1,744

I decided to shift my research away from an area altogether

1,744

I decided against seeking funding for a proposed research project

1,744

I decided against collaborating with particular scientists, postdocs, students, etc.

1,744

I limited my conversations about my research

1,744

I decided against submitting a manuscript to a journal

1,744

I modified a manuscript

1,744

I decided against presenting research at a conference

1,744

I modified a conference presentation

1,744

3. Are you currently conducting or managing research in the life sciences?

1,843

4. Do you consider any of the research you currently conduct or manage to have dual use potential?

1,376b

5. Are you currently conducting or managing research which includes any of these seven types of experiments?

1,376c



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Appendix D Additional Data and Analysis TABLE D-1 Survey Questions and Number of Responses for Each Question Number of Responsesa Question 1. Have you ever conducted research or managed others’ research in the 1,950 life sciences? 2. Have you made any changes in how you conduct or manage research because of concerns that knowledge, tools, or techniques from your research might be deliberately misused to facilitate bioterrorism? I decided against conducting a specific research project/experiment 1,744 I decided to shift my research away from an area altogether 1,744 I decided against seeking funding for a proposed research project 1,744 I decided against collaborating with particular scientists, postdocs, 1,744 students, etc. I limited my conversations about my research 1,744 I decided against submitting a manuscript to a journal 1,744 I modified a manuscript 1,744 I decided against presenting research at a conference 1,744 I modified a conference presentation 1,744 3. Are you currently conducting or managing research in the life 1,843 sciences? 1,376b 4. Do you consider any of the research you currently conduct or manage to have dual use potential? 1,376c 5. Are you currently conducting or managing research which includes any of these seven types of experiments? 

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 APPENDIX D Number of Responsesa Question 6. Do you now or have you ever worked with or managed research 1,798 using select agents? 7. Do the journal(s) in your field require reviewers to evaluate whether 1,755 manuscripts include knowledge, tools and techniques with dual use potential? 8. Do the journal(s) in your field require authors to disclose any research 1,755 with dual use potential to editors upon submission of the manuscript? 9. Should scientific journals have policies regarding publication of dual 1,755 use research? 10. Have you ever contacted an editor because you felt that a 1,755 manuscript you were reviewing contained knowledge, tools, or techniques that could pose a threat to national security? 11. Should professional scientific societies have codes for the responsible 1,743 conduct of dual use life sciences research? 12. Are you a member of any professional scientific societies that 1,743 already have codes of conduct that include statements about the responsible conduct of dual use research? 13. Principal investigators should be responsible for the initial 1,658 evaluation of the dual use potential of their life sciences research. 14. Scientists should provide formal assurance to their institution that 1,658 they are assessing their work for dual use potential. 15. Scientists conducting or managing research should take an oath, 1,658 similar to medicine’s Hippocratic Oath, to carry out research responsibly and guard against deliberate misuse of the knowledge, tools, or techniques of dual use research. 16. Preventing the potential that knowledge, tools, or techniques from 1,658 dual use research could pose a threat to national security requires . . . Certification of researchers conducting dual use research 1,658 Greater restrictions on access to specific biological agents or toxins. 1,658 Licensure of certain biological equipment that is commonly used in 1,658 life science research. Restrictions on disclosure of details about the research or its findings 1,658 through personal communication. Alteration or removal of certain experimental methods or findings 1,658 prior to publication or presentation. Restrictions on publication of findings based on dual use potential. 1,658 Classification of research findings based on dual use potential. 1,658 17. Dual use research needs greater federal oversight. 1,637 18. Principal investigators should be responsible for training lab staff, 1,637 students, and visiting scientists about dual use research including policies and practices to minimize the potential for misuse of information from their research.

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 APPENDIX D Number of Responsesa Question 19. University and college students should receive educational lectures 1,637 and materials on dual use life sciences research including the potential that knowledge, tools, and techniques from such research could pose a threat to national security. 20. Institutions should provide mandatory training for scientists 1,637 regarding dual use life sciences research. 21. All grant proposals for life sciences research with dual use potential 1,633 should be reviewed by a researcher’s institution prior to submission for funding. 22. Funding agencies should require grantees to attest on grant 1,633 applications that they have considered dual use implications of their proposed research. 23. Funding agencies would be less likely to fund grant proposals if the 1,633 proposed research has dual use potential. 24. What is the percent chance (ranging from 0 percent chance to 100 1,588 percent chance) that an act of bioterrorism will occur somewhere in the world in the next five years? 25. What is the percent chance (ranging from 0 percent chance to 100 1,588 percent chance) that an act of bioterrorism will occur in the United States in the next five years? 26. What is the percent chance (ranging from 0 percent chance to 100 1,588 percent chance) that knowledge, tools, or techniques from dual use life sciences research will facilitate an act of bioterrorism in the next five years? 27. To date, there have been few acts of bioterrorism. Which of the following help explain why? Terrorists lack the knowledge to work with or create dangerous 1,588 biological agents. Terrorists lack the equipment to work with or create dangerous 1,588 biological agents. Terrorists lack access to dangerous biological agents. 1,588 Terrorists are deterred by the threat of being caught and punished. 1,588 Terrorists prefer to use other means. 1,588 28. Do the following means of communication provide sufficient information for an individual with college level life science training to deliberately create a harmful biological agent? Scientific journal articles 1,588 Presentations at scientific conferences or meetings 1,588 Personal communications (e.g., e-mail, phone calls) 1,588 Internet 1,588 29. On June 1, 2007, what was your citizenship status? 1,586 30. What is the highest educational degree you have been awarded? 1,586

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 APPENDIX D Number of Responsesa Question 32. Which one of the following best describes your current occupational 1,586 status? Are you . . . 33. Which one of the following best describes your principal employer 1,443 during the week of June 1, 2007? 34. Which scientific discipline of the following do you consider to 1,586 be your primary area of work or study? (If currently unemployed or retired, please select the discipline that most closely matches your last occupation.) a Unless otherwise noted, these numbers are the number of responses to each question out of the possible 1,954 respondents who answered at least part of the survey. bThis number is the number of respondents who answered this question out of the 1,407 respondents who answered “yes” to question #3. cThis number is the number of respondents who answered this question out of the 1,407 respondents who answered “yes” to question #3. TABLE D-2 Percentage Likelihood of Dual Use Research Facilitating a Bioterror Attack, by Type of Research in Which Respondents Are Engaged Percentage Likelihood of Dual Use Facilitating a Bioterror Attack Type of Research Mean (%) SD (%) N Works with dual use Yes 28 33 196 No 25 30 1,033 1,229a Total Works with seven types of experiments Yes 31 33 74 No 25 30 1,155 1,229a Works with select agents Yes 30 34 416 No 27 30 1,051 Don’t Know 29 32 120 1,587b Total aThese two questions (works with dual use and percent likelihood and works with seven types of experiments and percent likelihood) could only be answered by the 1,407 people who were currently engaged in research. The 178 other respondents did not answer one or both of these questions. bThe questions about working with select agents and percent likelihood were asked of all 1,954 respondents. The other 367 respondents failed to answer one or both of these ques - tions. SOURCE: NRC/AAAS Survey; data tabulations by staff.

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 APPENDIX D TABLE D-3 Percentage of Respondents Agreeing or Disagreeing with Statement That Greater Federal Oversight Is Needed, by Type of Research and Employment Strongly Strongly Obser- Variable Values Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree vations Works with Yes 20 40 16 21 3 198 dual use No 11 35 29 21 4 1,065 Works with Yes 23 32 18 22 5 74 seven types of No 12 36 28 21 4 1,189 experiments Works with Yes 15 40 21 19 4 427 select agents No 10 34 30 23 4 1,088 Employer type Industry 9 37 23 25 7 223 Academe 12 36 28 20 3 1,023 Government 10 32 28 26 4 125 Other 14 29 25 29 3 72 NOTES: The number of observations reflects the number of individuals who answered each question down the left column (“Variable”) and the likert scale question. Recall that only 1,407 individuals were asked about whether they considered their research to be dual use or involve the seven types of experiments. As can be seen in the far-right column, not all of these 1,407 individuals answered the combination of dual use research and the likert scale question or seven types of experiments and the likert scale question. All 1,954 respondents could have answered whether they work with select agents and what their employer type was, although as noted in the far-right column, not all 1,954 respondents actually did so. SOURCE: NRC/AAAS Survey; data tabulations by staff. TABLE D-4 Percentage of Respondents Agreeing or Disagreeing That Particular Policies Should Be Required, by Policy, Type of Research and Employment Strongly Strongly Obser- Variable Values Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree vations A. Certification of researchers Works with Yes 17 35 9 28 11 198 dual use No 10 25 24 31 11 1,077 Works with Yes 20 30 11 30 9 74 seven types of No 10 26 22 31 11 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 14 27 17 29 13 429 select agents No 10 25 23 32 10 1,100 Employer type Industry 12 26 18 35 9 223 Academia 11 26 22 30 11 1,023 Government 9 23 27 29 12 125 Other 11 24 28 29 8 72

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0 APPENDIX D Strongly Strongly Obser- Variable Values Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree vations B. Restrictions on access Works with Yes 19 30 9 33 10 198 dual use No 9 24 22 34 12 1,077 Works with Yes 18 32 4 36 9 74 seven types of No 10 24 21 34 11 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 15 28 16 28 13 429 select agents No 7 22 21 38 13 1,100 Employer type Industry 7 21 15 40 17 223 Academia 10 26 20 34 11 1,023 Government 7 23 13 40 17 125 Other 7 15 35 35 8 72 C. Licensure of equipment Works with Yes 32 42 9 14 4 198 dual use No 23 37 21 14 4 1,077 Works with Yes 32 42 9 15 1 74 seven types of No 24 38 20 14 4 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 26 39 17 13 5 429 select agents No 22 35 21 17 5 1,100 Employer type Industry 22 35 18 19 6 223 Academia 25 39 19 14 4 1,023 Government 18 38 19 19 6 125 Other 19 32 25 21 3 72 D. Restrictions on personal communication Works with Yes 33 32 15 18 2 198 dual use No 20 38 23 16 4 1,077 Works with Yes 22 34 18 26 1 74 seven types of No 22 37 22 15 4 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 27 33 18 17 4 429 select agents No 19 37 24 17 3 1,100 Employer type Industry 18 31 24 21 6 223 Academia 22 39 22 15 3 1,023 Government 23 26 26 19 5 125 Other 24 33 24 15 4 72 E. Modification of manuscripts or presentations Works with Yes 33 26 15 23 3 198 dual use No 22 35 23 17 3 1,077 Works with Yes 26 30 12 31 1 74 seven types of No 24 34 22 17 3 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 25 32 20 19 5 429 select agents No 21 35 23 19 3 1,100

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 APPENDIX D Strongly Strongly Obser- Variable Values Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree vations Employer type Industry 18 29 22 24 6 223 Academia 24 36 20 17 3 1,023 Government 21 30 26 19 4 125 Other 19 35 25 19 1 72 F. Restrictions on publications Works with Yes 28 36 16 17 3 198 dual use No 20 38 23 17 3 1,077 Works with Yes 28 42 15 12 3 74 seven types of No 20 37 23 17 3 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 19 36 23 19 3 429 select agents No 18 37 24 19 2 1,100 Employer type Industry 16 29 26 25 5 223 Academia 21 40 21 16 2 1,023 Government 19 35 25 18 3 125 Other 19 39 21 21 0 72 G. Classification of findings Works with Yes 32 27 21 18 3 198 dual use No 19 28 26 24 3 1,077 Works with Yes 27 28 27 18 0 74 seven types of No 21 28 25 23 3 1,201 experiments Works with Yes 24 25 21 26 4 429 select agents No 17 29 27 24 4 1,100 Employer type Industry 15 25 24 28 8 223 Academia 20 31 25 22 3 1,023 Government 22 19 26 27 6 125 Other 18 22 28 31 1 72 NOTES: The number of observations reflects the number of individuals who answered each question down the left column (“Variable”) and the likert scale question. Recall that only 1,407 individuals were asked about whether they considered their research to be dual use or involve the seven types of experiments. As can be seen in the far-right column, not all of these 1,407 individuals answered the combination of dual use research and the likert scale question or seven types of experiments and the likert scale question. All 1,954 respondents could have answered whether they work with select agents and what their employer type was, although as noted in the far-right column, not all 1,954 respondents actually did so. SOURCE: NRC/AAAS Survey; data analysis by staff.

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