road density or pavement coverage as a percentage of gross land area, are more likely to determine stormwater runoff-related consequences. An inverse metric, the percentage of mature vegetation or forest across a landscape, expresses the magnitude of related, but not identical, impacts to downstream systems. Alternatively, these measures of land cover can be replaced by measures of land use, wherein the types of human activity (e.g., residential, industrial, commercial) are used as proxies for the suite of hydrologic, chemical, and biological changes imposed on the surrounding landscape.

All of these metrics of urbanization are strongly correlated, although none can directly substitute for another. They also are measured differently, which renders one or another more suitable for a given application. Land use is a common measure in the realm of urban planning, wherein current and future conditions for a city or an entire region are characterized using equivalent categories across parcels, blocks, or broad regions. Road density can be reliably and rapidly measured, either manually or in a Geographic Information System environment, and it commonly displays a very good correlation with other measures of human activity. “Land cover,” however, and particularly the percentage of impervious cover, is the metric most commonly used in studying the effects of urban development on stormwater, because it clearly expresses the hydrologic influence and watershed scale of urbanization. Box 1-2 describes the ways in which the percent of impervious cover in a watershed is measured.

There is no universally accepted terminology to describe land-cover or land-use conditions along the rural-to-urban gradient. Pozzi and Small (2005), for example, identified “rural,” “suburban,” and “urban” land uses on the basis of population density and vegetation cover, but they did not observe abrupt transitions that suggested natural boundaries (see Figure 1-1). In contrast, the Center for Watershed Protection (2005) defined the same terms but used impervious area percentage as the criterion, with such labels as “rural” (0 to 10 percent imperviousness), “suburban” (10 to 25 percent imperviousness), “urban” (25 to 60 percent imperviousness) and “ultra-urban” (greater than 60 percent imperviousness).

Beyond the problems posed by precise yet inconsistent definitions for commonly used words, none of the boundaries specified by these definitions are reflected in either hydrologic or ecosystem responses. Hydrologic response is strongly dependent on both land cover and drainage connectivity (e.g., Leopold, 1968); ecological responses in urbanizing watersheds do not show marked thresholds along an urban gradient (e.g., Figure 1-2) and they are dependent on not only the sheer magnitude of urban development but also the spatial configuration of that development across the watershed (Alberti et al., 2006). This report, therefore, uses such terms as “urban” and “suburban” under their common usage, without implying or advocating for a more precise (but ultimately limited and discipline-specific) definition.

Changing land cover and land use influence the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of downstream waterways. The specific mechanisms by which this influence occurs vary from place to place, and even a cursory review



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