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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
A second charge to the committee was to define the elements of a “protocol” to link pollutants in stormwater discharges to ambient water quality criteria. As described in Chapter 3, many processes connect sources of pollution to an effect observed in a downstream receiving water. More and more, these processes can be represented in watershed models, which are the key to linking stormwater sources to effects observed in receiving waters. The latter half of the chapter explores the current capability of models to make such links, including simple models, statistical and conceptual models, and more involved mechanistic models. At the present time, associating a single discharger with degraded in-stream conditions is generally not possible because of the state of both modeling and monitoring of stormwater.
MONITORING OF MS4s
EPA’s regulations for stormwater monitoring of MS4s is very limited, in that only the application requirements are stated [see 40 CFR § 122.26(d)]. The regulations require the MS4 program to identify five to ten stormwater discharge outfalls and to collect representative stormwater data for conventional and priority toxic pollutants from three representative storm events using both grab and composite sampling methods. Each sampled storm event must have a rainfall of at least 0.1 inch, must be preceded by at least 72 hours of a dry period, and the rain event must be within 50 percent of the average or median of the per storm volume and duration for the region. While the measurement of flow is not specifically required, an MS4 must make estimates of the event mean concentrations (EMCs) for pollutants discharged from all outfalls to surface waters, and in order to determine EMCs, flow needs to be measured or calculated.
Other than these requirements, the exact type of MS4 monitoring that is to be conducted during the permit term is left to the discretion of the permitting authority. EPA has not issued any guidance on what would be considered an adequate MS4 monitoring program for permitting authorities to evaluate compliance. Some guidance for MS4 monitoring based on desired management questions has been developed locally (for example, see the SCCWRP Technical Report No. 419, SMC 2004, Model Monitoring Program for MS4s in Southern California).
In the absence of national guidance from EPA, the MS4 monitoring programs for Phase I MS4s vary widely in structure and objectives, and Phase II MS4 programs largely do not perform any monitoring at all. The types of monitoring typically contained in Phase I MS4 permits include the (1) wet weather outfall screening and monitoring to characterize stormwater flows, (2) dry weather outfall screening and monitoring under illicit discharge detection and elimination programs, (3) biological monitoring to determine storm water impacts, (4) ambient water quality monitoring to characterize water quality conditions, and (5) stormwater control measure (SCM) effectiveness monitoring.