quire an increased commitment to the proper design and maintenance of the practices.

With the help of a method for estimating peak flows (the Rational Method, see Chapter 4), the modern urban drainage system came into being soon after World War II. This generally consisted of a system of catch basins and pipes to prevent flooding and drainage problems by efficiently delivering runoff water to the nearest waterbody. However, it was soon realized that delivering the water too quickly caused severe downstream flooding and bank erosion in the receiving water. To prevent bank erosion and provide more space for flood waters, some stream channels were enlarged and lined with concrete (see Figure 5-2). But while hardening and enlarging natural channels is a cost-effective solution to erosion and flooding, the modified channel increases downstream peak flows and it does not provide habitat to support a healthy aquatic ecosystem.

FIGURE 5-1 Cistern tank, Kamiros, Rhodes (ancient Greece, 7th century BC). SOURCE: Robert Pitt, University of Alabama.

FIGURE 5-1 Cistern tank, Kamiros, Rhodes (ancient Greece, 7th century BC). SOURCE: Robert Pitt, University of Alabama.



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