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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
FIGURE 5-2 Concrete channel in Lincoln Creek, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. SOURCE: Roger Bannerman, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Some way was needed to control the quantity of water reaching the end of pipes during a runoff event, and on-site detention (Figure 5-3) became the standard for accomplishing this. Ordinances started appearing in the early 1970s, requiring developers to reduce the peaks of different size storms, such as the 10-year, 24-hour storm. The ordinances were usually intended to prevent future problems with peak flows by requiring the installation of flow control structures, such as detention basins, in new developments. Detention basins can control peak flows directly below the point of discharge and at the property boundary. However, when designed on a site-by-site basis without taking other basins into account, they can lead to downstream flooding problems because volume is not reduced (McCuen, 1979; Ferguson, 1991; Traver and Chadderton, 1992; EPA, 2005d). In addition, out of concerns for clogging, openings in the outlet structure of most basins are generally too large to hold back flows from smaller, more frequent storms. Furthermore, low-flow channels have been constructed or the basins have been graded to move the runoff through the structure without delay to prevent wet areas and to make it easier to mow and maintain the detention basin.
Because of the limitations of on-site detention, infiltration of urban runoff to control its volume has become a recent goal of stormwater management. Without stormwater infiltration, municipalities in wetter regions of the country can expect drops in local groundwater levels, declining stream base flows (Wang et al., 2003a), and flows diminished or stopped altogether from springs feeding wetlands and lakes (Leopold, 1968; Ferguson, 1994).