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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
handicapped by the lack of design guidance, particularly for many of the non-traditional SCMs. Existing design guidance is often incomplete, outdated, or lacking key details to ensure proper on-the-ground implementation. In other cases, SCM design guidance has not been disseminated to the full population of MS4 communities. Nationwide guidance on SCM design and implementation may not be advisable or applicable to all physiographic, climatic, and ecoregions of the country. Rather, EPA and the states should encourage the development of regional design guidance that can be readily adapted and adopted by municipal and industrial permittees. As our understanding of the relevant hydrologic, environmental, and biological processes increases, SCM design guidance should be improved to incorporate more direct consideration of the parameters of concern, how they move across the landscape, and the issues in receiving waters.
The retrofitting of urban areas presents both unique opportunities andchallenges. Promoting growth in these areas is desirable because it takes pressure off the suburban fringes, thereby preventing sprawl, and it minimizes the creation of new impervious surfaces. However, it is more complex than Greenfields development because of the need to upgrade existing infrastructure, the limited availability and affordability of land, and the complications caused by rezoning. These sites may be contaminated, requiring cleanup before redevelopment can occur. Both innovative zoning and development incentives, along with the selection of SCMs that work well in the urban setting, are needed to achieve fair and effective stormwater management in these areas. For example, incentive or performance zoning could be used to allow for greater densities on a site, freeing other portions of the site for SCMs. Publicly owned, consolidated SCMs should be strongly considered as there may be insufficient land to have small, on-site systems. The performance and maintenance of the former can be overseen more effectively by a local government entity. The types of SCMs that are used in consolidated facilities—particularly detention basins, wet/dry ponds, and stormwater wetlands—perform multiple functions, such as prevention of streambank erosion, flood control, and large-scale habitat provision.
Alexander, D., and J. Heaney. 2002. Comparison of Conventional and Low Impact Development Drainage Designs. Final Report to the Sustainable Futures Society. University of Colorado, Boulder.
Andrews, E. D. 1984. Bed-material entrainment and hydraulic geometry of gravel-bed rivers in Colorado. Geological Society of America Bulletin 95:371-378.
Angus, R., K. Marion, and M. Lalor. 2002. Continuation of Studies to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Current BMPs in Controlling Stormwater Discharges from Small Construction Sites: Pilot Studies of Methods to Improve their