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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO): A discharge of untreated wastewater from a combined sewer system at a point prior to the headworks of a publicly owned treatment works. CSOs generally occur during wet weather (rainfall or snowmelt). During periods of wet weather, these systems become overloaded, bypass treatment works, and discharge directly to receiving waters.
Combined Sewer System: A wastewater collection system that conveys sanitary wastewaters (domestic, commercial, and industrial wastewaters) and stormwater through a single pipe to a publicly owned treatment works for treatment prior to discharge to surface waters.
Constructed Wetland: A wetland that is created on a site that previously was not a wetland. This wetland is designed specifically to remove pollutants from stormwater runoff.
Created Wetland: A wetland that is created on a site that previously was not a wetland. This wetland is created to replace wetlands that were unavoidably destroyed during design and construction of a project. This wetland cannot be used for treatment of stormwater runoff.
Detention: The temporary storage of stormwater runoff in an SCM with the goals of controlling peak discharge rates and providing gravity settling of pollutants.
Detention Facility/Structure: An above- or below-ground facility, such as a pond or tank, that temporarily stores stormwater runoff and subsequently releases it at a slower rate than it is collected by the drainage facility system. There is little or no infiltration of stored stormwater, and the facility is designed to not create a permanent pool of water.
Drainage: Refers to the collection, conveyance, containment, and/or discharge of surface and stormwater runoff.
Drainage Area: That area contributing runoff to a single point measured in a horizontal plane, which is enclosed by a ridge line.
Drainage Basin: A geographic and hydrologic subunit of a watershed.
Dry Pond: A facility that provides stormwater quantity control by containing excess runoff in a detention basin, then releasing the runoff at allowable levels. Synonymous with detention basin, it is intended to be dry between storms.
Effluent Limitation: Any restriction imposed by the EPA director on quantities, discharge rates, and concentrations of pollutants that are discharged from