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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
point sources into waters of the United States, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the ocean.
Effluent Limitation Guidelines: A regulation published by the EPA Administrator under Section 304(b) of the Clean Water Act that establishes national technology-based effluent requirements for a specific industrial category.
Exfiltration: The downward movement of water through the soil; the downward flow of runoff from the bottom of an infiltration SCM into the soil.
Extended Detention: A stormwater design feature that provides for the gradual release of a volume of water in order to increase settling of pollutants and protect downstream channels from frequent storm events. When combined with a pond, the settling time is increased by 24 hours.
Filter Strip: A strip of permanent vegetation above ponds, diversions, and other structures to retard the flow of runoff, causing deposition of transported material and thereby reducing sedimentation. As an SCM, it refers to riparian buffers, which run adjacent to waterbodies and intercept overland flow and shallow subsurface flow (both of which are usually sheet flow rather than a distinct influent pipe). The term is borrowed from the agricultural world.
Flood Frequency: The frequency with which the flood of interest may be expected to occur at a site in any average interval of years. Frequency analysis defines the n-year flood as being the flood that will, over a long period, be equaled or exceeded on the average once every n years.
Frequency of Storm (Design Storm Frequency): The anticipated period in years that will elapse, based on average probability of storms in the design region, before a storm of a given intensity and/or total volume will recur; thus, a 10-year storm can be expected to occur on the average once every 10 years. Sewers designed to handle flows which occur under such storm conditions would be expected to be surcharged by any storms of greater amount or intensity.
General Permit: A single permit issued to a large number of dischargers of pollutants in stormwater. General permits are issued by the permitting authority, and interested parties then submit a Notice of Intent (NOI) to be covered. The permit must identify the area of coverage, the sources covered, and the process for obtaining coverage. Once the permit is issued, a permittee may submit an NOI and receive coverage within a very short time frame.
Grab Sample: A sample which is taken from a stream on a one-time basis without consideration of the flow rate of the stream and without consideration of time.