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Urban Stormwater Management in the United States
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL): The amount, or load, of a specific pollutant that a waterbody can assimilate and still meet the water quality standard for its designated use. For impaired waters the TMDL reduces the overall load by allocating the load among current pollutant loads (from point and nonpoint sources), background or natural loads, a margin of safety, and sometimes an allocation for future growth.
Volumetric Runoff Coefficient (Rv): The value that is applied to a given rainfall volume to yield a corresponding runoff volume based on the percent impervious cover in a drainage basin.
Water Quality-Based Effluent Limit (WQBEL): A value determined by selecting the most stringent of the effluent limits calculated using all applicable water quality criteria (e.g., aquatic life, human health, and wildlife) for a specific point source to a specific receiving water for a given pollutant.
Water Quality SCM: An SCM specifically designed for pollutant removal.
Water Quantity SCM: An SCM specifically designed to reduce the peak rate of stormwater runoff.
Water Quality Volume (Wqv): The volume needed to capture and treat 90 percent of the average annual stormwater runoff volume equal to 1 inch times the volumetric runoff coefficient (Rv) times the site area.
Wetlands: Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas. This includes wetlands created, restored, or enhanced as part of a mitigation procedure. This does not include constructed wetlands or the following surface waters of the state intentionally constructed from sites that are not wetlands: irrigation and drainage ditches, grass-lined swales, canals, agricultural detention facilities, farm ponds, and landscape amenities.
Wet Pond: A facility that treats stormwater for water quality by utilizing a permanent pool of water to remove conventional pollutants from runoff through sedimentation, biological uptake, and plant filtration. Synonymous with a retention basin.
SOURCES: Most of the definitions are from EPA (2003), “BMP Design Considerations,” 600/R-03/103, or EPA (2008), “Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters,” EPA 841-B-08-002.