Contents

 

 

SUMMARY

 

1

   

 1  INTRODUCTION

 

13

   

 Urbanization and Its Impacts

 

13

   

 What’s Wrong With the Nation’s Waters?

 

20

   

 Why Is It So Hard to Reduce the Impacts of Stormwater?

 

27

   

 Impetus for the Study and Report Roadmap

 

35

   

 References

 

39

2

 

THE CHALLENGE OF REGULATING STORMWATER

 

47

   

 Federal Regulatory Framework for Stormwater

 

47

   

 EPA Stormwater Program

 

65

   

 Local Codes and Ordinances that Affect Stormwater Management

 

84

   

 Limitations of the Federal Stormwater Program

 

98

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations

 

119

   

 References

 

122

3

 

HYDROLOGIC, GEOMORPHIC, AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHEDS

 

129

   

 Land-Use Changes

 

129

   

 Hydrologic and Geomorphic Changes

 

145

   

 Pollutant Loading in Stormwater

 

176

   

 Other Sources of Urban Runoff Discharges

 

192

   

 Biological Responses to Urbanization

 

207

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations

 

230

   

 References

 

233

4

 

MONITORING AND MODELING

 

257

   

 Monitoring of MS4s

 

258

   

 Monitoring of Industries Including Construction

 

281

   

 Modeling to Linking Sources of Pollution to Effects in Receiving Waters

 

298

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations

 

329

   

 References

 

332

5

 

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT APPROACHES

 

339

   

 Historical Perspectives on Stormwater Control Measures

 

339

   

 Review of Stormwater Control Measures

 

344

   

 Designing Systems of Stormwater Control Measures on a Watershed Scale

 

421

   

 Cost, Finance Options, and Incentives

 

440



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