Glossary

8.5-square-mile area—The 8.5-square-mile area (SMA) is a low-lying, partially developed area near the northeast corner of Everglades National Park, west of the L-31 north canal. Flood protection was to have been provided under the original 1989 Mod Waters legislation, but years of subsequent study and negotiations with property owners resulted in a compromise in which a flood protection levee is to be built around approximately two-thirds of the 8.5 SMA while providing for purchase of approximately one-third of the private property and 12 homes in the western portion.

Acceler8An expedited course of action for achieving Everglades restoration. Through Accler8, the State of Florida intends to implement 11 components of the CERP.

Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS)A modeling system thatuses topographic data to convert the 2 × 2 mile landscape of the regional hydrologic models to a 500 × 500 m landscape to which various ecological models are applied. These range from highly parameterized, mechanistic individual-based models (e.g., EVERKITE, SIMSPAR) to simpler, habitat-suitability models (Spatially-Explicit Species Index and Habitat Suitability Index). The objectives of the ATLSS project are to utilize the outputs of systems models to drive a variety of models that attempt to compare and contrast the relative impacts of alternative hydrologic scenarios on the biotic components of South Florida.

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)A technology for storage of water in a suitable aquifer when excess water is available and recovery from the same aquifer when the water is needed to meet peak emergency or long-term water demands. Wells are used to pump water in and out of the aquifer.



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Glossary 8.5-square-mile area—The 8.5-square-mile area (SMA) is a low-lying, partially developed area near the northeast corner of Everglades National Park, west of the L-31 north canal. Flood protection was to have been provided under the original 1989 Mod Waters legislation, but years of subsequent study and negotiations with property owners resulted in a compromise in which a flood protection levee is to be built around approximately two-thirds of the 8.5 SMA while providing for purchase of approximately one-third of the private property and 12 homes in the western portion. Acceler8—An expedited course of action for achieving Everglades restoration. Through Accler8, the State of Florida intends to implement 11 components of the CERP. Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS)—A modeling system that uses topographic data to convert the 2 × 2 mile landscape of the regional hydrologic models to a 500 × 500 m landscape to which various ecological models are applied. These range from highly parameterized, mechanistic individual- based models (e.g., EVERKITE, SIMSPAR) to simpler, habitat-suitability models (Spatially-Explicit Species Index and Habitat Suitability Index). The objectives of the ATLSS project are to utilize the outputs of systems models to drive a variety of models that attempt to compare and contrast the relative impacts of alternative hydrologic scenarios on the biotic components of South Florida. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)—A technology for storage of water in a suit- able aquifer when excess water is available and recovery from the same aquifer when the water is needed to meet peak emergency or long-term water demands. Wells are used to pump water in and out of the aquifer. 253

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254 Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)—An ongoing series of long-duration changes in the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean, with cool and warm phases that may last for 20–40 years at a time and a difference of about 1°F between extremes. These changes are natural and have been occur- ring for at least the last 1,000 years. The AMO has affected air temperatures and rainfall over much of the Northern Hemisphere—particularly in North America and Europe—and is associated with changes in the frequency of North Ameri- can droughts and of severe Atlantic hurricanes. Also, it alternately obscures and exaggerates the global increase in temperatures due to human activities. Best management practices (BMPs)—Effective, practical methods that prevent or reduce the movement of sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and other pollutants resulting from agricultural, industrial, or other societal activities from the land to surface or groundwater or that optimize water use. Central and Southern Florida (C&SF) Project for Flood Control and Other Purposes—A multipurpose project, first authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1948, to provide flood control, water supply protection, water quality protection, and natural resource protection. Clean Water Act (CWA)—The Clean Water Act is the cornerstone of surface water quality protection in the United States. The statute employs a variety of regulatory and nonregulatory tools to reduce direct pollutant discharges into waterways, finance municipal wastewater treatment facilities, and manage polluted runoff. These tools help to achieve the broader goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters so that they can support the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)—The plan for the restora- tion of the South Florida ecosystem authorized by Congress in 2000. Conceptual ecological models—Nonquantitative, verbal or diagrammatic hypotheses about the major anthropogenic and natural drivers and stressors on natural systems, the ecological effects of these stressors, and the biological attributes or indicators of these ecological responses. They are used as planning tools for research and adaptive management. Critical Projects—Projects determined to be critical to the restoration of the South Florida ecosystem that were authorized in 1996 prior to the CERP. These

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Glossary 255 projects are comparatively small and were undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and South Florida Water Management District. They are being implemented along with the CERP projects. Decomp—Short title for Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheet Flow Enhancement—Part 1 project. El Niño/Southern Oscillation—A coupled atmosphere-ocean phenomenon that occurs at timescales of 2 to about 7 years, collectively known as the El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During an ENSO event, the prevailing trade winds in the South Pacific weaken, reducing upwelling of cold, deep water and alter- ing ocean currents such that the sea surface temperatures warm. The warming further weakens the trade winds. The cold phase of ENSO is called La Niña. ENSO has global effects on climate, affecting agriculture, fisheries, and other human activities. Endangered Species Act (ESA)—A United States law passed in 1973 to protect species listed by the federal government as threatened or endangered from extinction. It provides penalties for the taking of such species and requires any federal agency to consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (or National Marine Fisheries Service for marine species) before undertaking or funding any action that could jeopardize the continued existence or recovery of listed species. Estuary—The portion of the Earth’s coastal zone where seawater, fresh water, and land, interact, typically arms of the sea where tide meets river currents. Everglades—A mosaic of wetlands, uplands, and coastal areas that extends from the Kissimmee River basin to Florida Bay. Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA)—Land in the northern Everglades south of Lake Okeechobee that was drained for agricultural use. Everglades Construction Project—Twelve interrelated construction projects located between Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Six storm-water treat- ment areas (STAs, or constructed wetlands) totaling more than 47,000 acres are the cornerstone of the project. The STAs rely on physical and biological processes to reduce the level of total phosphorous entering the Everglades to an interim goal of 50 parts per billion.

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256 Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)—A U.S. Geological Survey sur- face-water hydrologic monitoring network in support of the monitoring and assessment plan (MAP) projects that is intended to provide the hydrologic data necessary to integrate hydrologic and biological responses to the CERP during MAP performance measurement assessment and evaluation for the Greater Everglades module. Everglades Landscape Model (ELM)—Model used to predict the landscape response to different water management scenarios. ELM consists of a set of inte- grated modules to understand ecosystem dynamics at a regional scale and simu- lates the biogeochemical processes associated with hydrology, nutrients, soil formation, and vegetation succession. Its main components include hydrology, water quality, soils, periphyton, and vegetation. Everglades Protection Area—As defined in the Everglades Forever Act, the Ever- glades Protection Area comprises water conservation areas 1 (also known as the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge), 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B; the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge; and the Everglades National Park. Exotic species—An introduced species not native to the place where it is found. Usually used for species introduced from outside a country’s borders. Extirpated species—A species that has become extinct in a given area. Flow—The volume of water that passes a given point per unit of time, includ- ing in-stream flow requirements, minimum flow, and peak flow. “Flow” is used generically within the text to mean the movement of volumes of water across the landscape, and it incorporates the concepts of volumetric flow rate (e.g., cubic feet per second), velocity, and direction. Volumetric flow rate may be estimated for large averaging times, such as acre-feet per year, as in the South Florida Water Management Model and the Natural Systems Model, and also on a short-term (“instantaneous”) basis by other models, as discussed in Chapter 4. Flux—The rate of transfer of fluid, particles, or energy across a given surface. Footprint—The area of productive land and aquatic ecosystems required to produce the resources used and to assimilate the wastes produced by a defined population at a specified material standard of living, wherever that land might be located.

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Glossary 257 Foundation projects—Non-CERP Everglades restoration activities, many of which are essential (the foundation) for completion of the CERP. Geographic information system (GIS)—A map-based data storage and retrieval system. Guidance memorandum—A document of prescribed format that officially cap- tures decisions of the program managers and promulgates their guidance regard- ing implementation of the CERP. The guidance memoranda address an array of subjects including definitions, direction and procedures for reporting, Web management, financial management, and program controls. Habitat Conservation Plan—A plan required by Section 10(a)(2)(A) of the ESA for an applicant for an incidental take permit. The plan is required to include, among other things, the impacts that are likely to result from the taking and the measures the permit applicant will undertake to minimize and mitigate such impacts. Habitat conservation plans reduce conflicts among listed species and economic use or development activities, allowing for the development of “cre- ative partnerships” between the public and private sectors, designed to make the process work for both landowners and species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)—Tool used to define, in relative terms, the quality of the habitat for various plant and animal species. HSIs can be used as the first approximation toward quantifying the relationships identified in various conceptual ecological models. Herbert Hoover Dike—A dike system surrounding Lake Okeechobee that pro- vides flood and storm damage reduction and other water control benefits in Central and South Florida. It consists of 143 miles of levees with 19 culverts, hurricane gates, and other water control structures. Hydroperiod—Annual temporal pattern of water levels. Incremental Adaptive Restoration (IAR)—An alternative framework called for in NRC (2007) for advancing natural resource restoration in the Everglades. The aim of IAR is to resolve decision-critical scientific uncertainties and to address project sequencing constraints to improve the pace of restoration. As conceived, the IAR approach makes investments in restoration project increments that are large enough to secure significant environmental benefits, while simultaneously testing hypotheses selected to resolve important scientific

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258 Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades uncertainties about the response of the system to management interventions. Such steps would likely be smaller than the CERP projects because the pur- pose of IAR is to take actions that help address some sources of delay in the pace of restoration progress as well as to promote learning that can guide the remainder of project design. As an application of adaptive management, IAR would require rigorous monitoring and assessment to test hypotheses, yielding valuable information that can expedite future decision making and improve future project design. Interagency Modeling Center (IMC)—An equal partnership between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District and the South Florida Water Man- agement District that serves as the modeling services single point of responsi- bility for the CERP. It provides, coordinates, and oversees the modeling needs and efforts of each project delivery team and the Restoration. Coordination, and Verification Program, or RECOVER. Interim goal—A means by which the restoration success of the CERP may be evaluated throughout the implementation process. Interim target—A means by which the success of the CERP in providing for water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection, may be evaluated throughout the implementation process. Invasive species—Species of plants or animals, both native and exotic, that aggressively invade habitats and cause multiple ecological changes. Marl—A type of wetland soil high in clay and carbonates. Hydroperiod is a critical determinant of marl formation. Master Implementation Sequencing Plan (MISP)—Specifies the sequence in which CERP projects are planned, designed, and constructed. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)—As authorized by the Clean Water Act, this permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into the waters of the United States. Natural system—According to the Water Resources Development Act of 2000 (WRDA 2000), all land and water managed by the federal government or the state within the South Florida ecosystem, including water conservation areas, sovereign submerged land, Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, Big

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Glossary 259 Cypress National Preserve, other federal or state (including a political subdivision of a state) land that is designated and managed for conservation purposes, and any tribal land that is designated and managed for conservation purposes, as approved by the tribe. Natural System Model (NSM)—Model that simulates hydropatterns before canals, levees, dikes, and pumps were built. The NSM mimics frequency, dura- tion, depth, and spatial extent of water inundation under pre-management (i.e., natural) hydrologic conditions. In many cases, those pre-management water levels are used as a target for hydrologic restoration assuming that restoration of the hydrologic response that existed prior to drainage of the system would lead to restoration of natural habitats and biota. Natural System Regional Simulation Model (NSRSM)—Application of the updated Regional Systems Model to simulate the natural system hydrology of South Florida. The use of refined input parameters, in combination with the model’s improved hydrologic simulation engine, results in simulations that reasonably represent pre-drainage (mid-1800) hydrology within an estimated range of performance. Original Everglades—The pre-drainage Everglades, or that which existed prior to the construction of drainage canals beginning in the late 1800s. Part per billion (ppb)—A measure of concentration equivalent to one microgram of solute per liter of solution. Part per million (ppm)—A measure of concentration equivalent to one milligram of solute per liter of solution. Passive adaptive management—Adaptive management by which a preferred course of action is selected based on existing information and understand- ing. Outcomes are monitored and evaluated, and subsequent decisions (e.g., adjustments in design or operations, the design of subsequent projects, etc.) are adjusted based on improved understanding. It is distinguished from active adaptive management, which involves designing management actions as experi- mental activities, to enhance the learning process. Performance measure—A quantifiable indicator of ecosystem response to changes in environmental conditions.

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260 Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades Periphyton—A biological community of algae, bacteria, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms. In the Everglades, periphyton grows on top of the soil surface—attached to the stems of rooted vegetation—and in the water column or at the water surface, sometimes in association with other floating vegetation. Programmatic Regulations—Procedural framework and specific requirements called for in Section 601(h)(3) of WRDA 2000. The programmatic regulations are intended to guide implementation of the CERP and to ensure that the goals and purposes of the CERP are achieved. The final rule for the Programmatic Regulations (33 CFR § 385) was issued in November 2003. Project delivery team (PDT)—An interdisciplinary group that includes represen- tatives from the implementing agencies. PDTs develop the products necessary to deliver the project. Project implementation report (PIR)—A decision document that bridges the gap between the conceptual design contained in the comprehensive plan and the detailed design necessary to proceed to construction. Project management plan (PMP)—A document that establishes the project’s scope, schedule, costs, funding requirements, and technical performance requirements (including the various functional area’s performance and quality criteria) and that will be used to produce and deliver the products that comprise the project. RECOvER—The Restoration, Coordination, and Verification Program (RECOVER) is an arm of the CERP responsible for linking science and the tools of science to a set of system-wide planning, evaluation, and assessment tasks. RECOVER’s objectives are to evaluate and assess CERP performance; refine and improve the CERP during the implementation period; and ensure that a system-wide per- spective is maintained throughout the restoration program. RECOVER conducts scientific and technical evaluations and assessments for improving CERP’s ability to restore, preserve, and protect the South Florida ecosystem while providing for the region’s other water-related needs. RECOVER communicates and coordinates the results of these evaluations and assessments. Regional Simulation Model (RSM)—A regional finite-volume-based hydrologic model developed principally for application in South Florida that simulates the coupled movement and distribution of groundwater and surface water through- out the model domain using a Hydrologic Simulation Engine to simulate the

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Glossary 261 natural hydrology and a Management Simulation Engine to simulate water control operations. Ridge—Elevated areas of sawgrass habitat that rise above the foot-and-a-half deeper sloughs. A ridge may be submerged or above the water surface. Savings Clause—Provision of WRDA 2000 that is designed to ensure that an existing legal source of water (e.g., agricultural or urban water supply, water supply for Everglades National Park, water supply for fish and wildlife) is not eliminated or transferred until a replacement source of water of comparable quantity and quality—as was available on the date of enactment of WRDA 2000—is available and that existing levels of flood protection are not reduced. Sawgrass plain—An unbroken expanse of dense, tall (up to 10 feet) sawgrass that originally covered most of the northern Everglades. Agricultural crops, mainly sugar cane, have replaced most of the sawgrass plain area, but some tall sawgrass remains in the water conservation areas. Sheet flow—Water movement as a broad front with shallow, uniform depth. Slough—A depression associated with swamps and marshlands as part of a bayou, inlet, or backwater; contains areas of slightly deeper water and a slow current and can be thought of as the broad, shallow rivers of the Everglades. South Florida ecosystem—An area consisting of the lands and waters within the boundary of the South Florida Water Management District, including the built environment, the Everglades, the Florida Keys, and the contiguous near- shore coastal waters of South Florida (also known as the Greater Everglades ecosystem). South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (SFERTF or Task Force)—The Task Force was established by the WRDA of 1996 to coordinate policies, pro- grams, and science activities among the many restoration partners in South Florida. Its 14 members include the secretaries of Interior (chair), Commerce, Army, Agriculture, and Transportation; the Attorney General; and the Adminis- trator of the Environmental Protection Agency; or their designees. The Secretary of the Interior appoints one member each from the Seminole Tribe of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. The Secretary of the Interior also appoints, based on recommendations of the governor of Florida, two rep-

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262 Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades resentatives of the state of Florida, one representative of the South Florida Water Management District, and two representatives of local Florida governments. South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)—A model that simulates hydrology and water systems. It is widely accepted as the best available tool for analyzing structural and/or operational changes to the complex water manage- ment system in South Florida at the regional scale. Storm-water Treatment Area (STA)—A human constructed wetland area to treat urban and agricultural runoff water before it is discharged to the natural areas. Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAv)—Plants that grow completely below the water surface. Total maximum daily load (TMDL)—A calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. Total phosphorus (TP)—Sum of phosphorus in dissolved and particulate forms. Tree island—Patch of forest in the Everglades marsh occurring in the central peatlands and the peripheral marl prairies of the southern and southeastern Everglades and on higher ground than ridges. Sizes range from as small as one- hundredth of an acre to hundreds of acres. Water conservation areas (WCAs)—Everglades marshland areas that were modified for use as storage to prevent flooding, to irrigate agriculture land and recharge well fields, to supply water for Everglades National Park, and for gen- eral water conservation. WCA-1, WCA-2A, WCA-2B, WCA-3A, and WCA-3B comprise five surface-water management basins in the Everglades; bounded by the Everglades Agricultural Area on the north and the Everglades National Park basin on the south, the WCAs are confined by levees and water control structures that regulate the inflows and outflows to each one of them. Restoration of more natural water levels and flows to the WCAs is a main objective of the CERP. Water reservations—According to WRDA 2000, the state shall, under state law, make sufficient reservations of water provided by each CERP project for the natural system in accordance with the project implementation report for that project and consistent with the plan before water made available by a project is permitted for a consumptive use or otherwise made unavailable.

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Glossary 263 Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2000—Legislation that autho- rized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan as a framework for modify- ing the Central and South Florida Project to increase future water supplies, with the appropriate quality, timing, and distribution, for environmental purposes so as to achieve a restored Everglades natural system as much as possible, while at the same time meeting other water-related needs of the ecosystem. WRDAs are passed periodically, the most recent one having been enacted in 2007; they provide the mechanism for authorizing CERP activities. Water year—Time convention used as a basis for processing stream flow and other hydrologic data. In the Northern Hemisphere, the water year begins October 1 and ends September 30; in the Southern Hemisphere, it begins July 1 and ends June 30. The water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Wetlands—Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwa- ter at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Yellow Book—This is the common name for the Central and Southern Florida Comprehensive Review Study Final Integrated Feasibility Report and Program- matic Environmental Impact Statement (USACE and SFWMD, 1999), which laid out the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

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