Appendix C
Status of Key Non-CERP Projects

KISSIMMEE RIVER RESTORATION

Status: This project will backfill a total of 22 miles of C-38 and reestablish approximately 40 miles of meandering river channel. Two of the four phases of the Kissimmee River Restoration Project to backfill the initial 10 miles of C-38 are complete, restoring an 18-mile section of the original river channel. All 102,061 acres of land needed for the restoration have been acquired. There are two remaining construction phases will backfill the final 12 miles of C-38.


Observed Benefits: About 6,300 acres of formerly drained portions of the river’s floodplain are now experiencing enhanced inundation and converting back to wetland habitat. A comprehensive evaluation program for tracking environmental responses to the restoration is gauging the success of the project in meeting its goal of ecological integrity for the river and the floodplain. Densities of long-legged wading birds on the restored floodplain exceeded restoration expectations each year since 2002.


Start Date IFP (Integrated Financial Plan): 1994

Current Estimated Completion Date: 2013

Original Estimated Cost (WRDA 1992): $427 million (M)

2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $583M

EVERGLADES CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Status: Stormwater treatment area (STA)-2 Cell 4, STA-5 Flow way 3, and STA-6 Section 2 became flow-capable December 2006. The completion of STA-6Section 2 marks the completion of construction of the original Everglades Construction Project (ECP). Major efforts to rehabilitate STA-1W Cells 2, 4, 1B, and 5 were under way during water year (WY) 2007. Rehabilitation efforts



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Appendix C Status of Key Non-CERP Projects KISSIMMEE RIVER RESTORATION Status: This project will backfill a total of 22 miles of C-38 and reestablish approximately 40 miles of meandering river channel. Two of the four phases of the Kissimmee River Restoration Project to backfill the initial 10 miles of C-38 are complete, restoring an 18-mile section of the original river channel. All 102,061 acres of land needed for the restoration have been acquired. There are two remaining construction phases will backfill the final 12 miles of C-38. Observed Benefits: About 6,300 acres of formerly drained portions of the river’s floodplain are now experiencing enhanced inundation and converting back to wetland habitat. A comprehensive evaluation program for tracking environ- mental responses to the restoration is gauging the success of the project in meeting its goal of ecological integrity for the river and the floodplain. Densities of long-legged wading birds on the restored floodplain exceeded restoration expectations each year since 2002. Start Date IFP (Integrated Financial Plan): 1994 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2013 Original Estimated Cost (WRDA 1992): $427 million (M) 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $583M EVERGLADES CONSTRUCTION PROJECT Status: Stormwater treatment area (STA)-2 Cell 4, STA-5 Flow way 3, and STA-6 Section 2 became flow-capable December 2006. The completion of STA-6 Section 2 marks the completion of construction of the original Everglades Construction Project (ECP). Major efforts to rehabilitate STA-1W Cells 2, 4, 1B, and 5 were under way during water year (WY) 2007. Rehabilitation efforts 285

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286 Appendix C included removal of the phosphorus-rich accrued layer that includes highly flocculent material, removal of tussock material, ground leveling to reduce flow constriction or short-circuiting, and rice planting to stabilize the soils. In early WY2008, a major submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) inoculation effort was conducted using SAV harvested from STA-2 Cell 3 and deposited into STA-1W Cells 2B and 3. Observed Benefits: Since 1994, the ECP STAs have retained over 900 mt of total phosphorus (TP) that would have otherwise entered into the Everglades Protec- tion Area, reducing TP loads by 70 percent and phosphorus concentrations from an overall annual flow-weighted mean (FWM) TP of 145 parts per billion (ppb) down to 45 ppb. Start Date: Authorized in 1994, Everglades Forever Act Current Estimated Completion Date: Not available Original Estimated Cost: $825M Current Estimated Cost: $836.2M MODIFICATIONS TO C- (SOUTH DADE) Status: Currently, two interim pump stations and one permanent pump station have been completed, along with construction of three detention areas, replace- ment of the Taylor Slough Bridge, and removal of 4.75 miles of spoil mounds along lower C-111. A land exchange of approximately 1,000 acres between Everglades National Park and the SFWMD was approved by Congress and executed in 2005. The project management plan (PMP) is being updated to detail and refinements in the design and accompanying costs and schedule. A supplemental Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) to address the 50/50 cost share is forthcoming. Construction of the earthwork for the retention/detention area is scheduled to be complete by September 2008. Construction on the S-331 command and control facility (cost shared with the Mod Waters project) is scheduled to be complete in March 2009. A construction contract to extend the S-332B north detention area and contain discharges from the 8.5 Square Mile Area STA component of the Mod Waters project is expected in 2010. Observed Benefits: Not yet fully implemented. Distribution of flows has improved downstream of the Taylor Slough bridge replacement and C-111 spoil mounds removal areas.

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Appendix C 287 Start Date IFP: 1994 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2014 (subject to appropriations) Original Estimated Cost: $121M (1994) 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $370M MODIFIED WATER DELIVERIES TO EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK Status: Construction features completed: 1. Spillway structures S-355A and B in the L-29 Levee 2. S-333 modifications 3. Tigertail Camp elevation 4. Pump Station S-356 between L-31N Canal and L-29 Canal 5. Levees and a seepage collector canal to provide flood mitigation for the East Everglades residential area (8.5 square mile area) Work in progress: 1. Degradation of the L-67 Extension Canal and Levee (4 of 9 miles degraded) 2. S-331 Command and Control (cost shared with the C-111 [South Dade]) Future work: 3. Structures S-345 A, B, and C through the L-67A and C Levees 4. Structures S-349 A, B, and C in the L-67A Borrow Canal 5. Osceola Camp elevation design and construction 6. L-29 weirs The USACE has completed design of the bridges and road raising for the Tamiami Trail modifications feature. A final integrated Limited Reevaluation Report and Environmental Assessment is scheduled to be submitted to Con- gress in 2008. Observed Benefits: Not yet implemented. Start Date IFP: 1990 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2018 Original Estimated Cost: $98M (1989) 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $398M NORTHERN EVERGLADES AND ESTUARIES PROTECTION PROGRAM Status: In February 2008, the South Florida Water Management District, in coordination with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and

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288 Appendix C the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, issued the Lake Okeechobee Watershed Construction Project Phase II Technical Plan in response to the authorizing 2007 Florida state legislation. The plan identifies construc- tion projects, along with on-site measures that prevent or reduce pollution at its source—such as agricultural and urban best management practices—and are needed to achieve water quality targets for the lake. In addition, it includes other projects for increasing water storage north of Lake Okeechobee to achieve healthier lake levels and reduce harmful discharges to the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries. The plan consolidates the numerous initiatives currently under way through Florida’s Lake Okeechobee Protection Plan and Lake Okeechobee and Estuary Recovery Plan (LOER). This plan is subject to ratification by the Florida legislature. Several LOER components are under construction, including 3 STAs, one STA expansion, one reservoir in association with the Taylor Creek STA, and the rerouting of flows to the Lakeside Ranch STA. Observed Benefits: Not yet implemented. Start Date: 2007 Current Estimated Completion Date: To be determined Current Estimated Cost: Non-CERP features: $260–$320M; CERP features: $1– $1.4 billion INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Status: Progress is being made through several programmatic initiatives. An interagency group, the Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area, has been assembled to support and enhance a weed management database (WEEDAR). Biocontrol agents have been successfully developed and introduced for Melaleuca; efforts to develop agents for Lygodium are continuing; and conventional controls (physical removal, herbicide applications) and airborne surveys are carried out regularly. Funding comes from specific projects under CERP (Melaleuca Eradication and Other Exotic Plants project, funded in 2002) and a variety of state-based projects. Surveys of invasive species are conducted by a variety of agencies (FLDEP, SFWMD, NPS). Shortages of funds for moni- toring and assessment, and development of biocontrol agent hampers further progress. Management of exotic animal species lags well behind efforts for invasive exotic plants. Observed Benefits: Melaleuca is thought to be under control, with most popu- lations subject to maintenance control. Biocontrol agents are being introduced

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Appendix C 289 for Lygodium and Schinus; Lygodium is considered a major threat to ecosystem integrity. Information costs and timelines not found EVERGLADES AND SOUTH FLORIDA (E&SF) RESTORATION: CRITICAL PROJECTS East Coast Canal Structures (C-4) Status: Construction of a gated water control structure (S-380) in the C-4 basin in Dade County southeast of the Pennsuco wetlands is complete. Observed Benefits: Raised surface and ground water levels to help preserve wetlands, increased aquifer recharge, and reduced seepage. Start Date IFP: 1999 Completion Date IFP: 2003 2007 IFP Cost: $3.7M Tamiami Trail Culverts Status: Original plans included Phase 1 placement of 77 culverts along Tamiami Trail (62 culverts west of SR 92 in the Picayune Strand area, plus 15 culverts east of SR92 near the Big Cypress Preserve area), and Phase 2 resurfacing of Tamiami Trail related to these efforts. Construction of the Western Tamiami Trail Culverts between SR92 and SR29 in Collier County was completed in May 2006. The remainder of Phase 1 and Phase 2 work is “on hold” pending funding. The western portion of Phase I of this project has now been included as a component of the Picayune Strand Restoration project and will be cost shared under that project instead of the initial Critical Projects authority. Observed Benefits: Installation of Phase 1 culverts under Tamiami Trail estab- lished more natural hydropatterns north and south of the highway, which is expected to enhance biological restoration in the area. Start Date IFP: 1998 Estimated Completion Date: 2011 2007 IFP Cost: $8.9M

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290 Appendix C Florida Keys Carrying Capacity Study Status: This project has been completed. Observed Benefits: The South Florida Regional Planning Council has agreed to steward and maintain the Carrying Capacity Impact Assessment Model as a decision making tool. The Florida Marine Research Institute has also agreed to steward and maintain the databases. Start Date IFP: 1997 Completion Date IFP: 2003 2007 IFP Cost: $6M Western C- Water Quality Treatment Status: Construction is complete for this project to improve the quality and timing of stormwater discharges to the Everglades Protection Area from the Western C-11 Basin located in south central Broward County. The structures have been turned over from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the South Florida Water Management District for operation and maintenance. Observed Benefits: The S-381 structure in the C-11 canal separates clean seep- age flows from untreated agricultural and urban stormwater runoff. The S-9A pump station pumps clean flows into WCA-3A. Start Date IFP: 1997 Completion Date IFP: 2006 2007 IFP Cost: $18.1 M Seminole Tribe Big Cypress Reservation Water Conservation Plan Status: Construction of the conveyance canal system is complete. Construction is under way on water control and treatment facilities in the western portion of Big Cypress Reservation. Phase II of this project has been divided into four basins. The USACE awarded a contract for construction of the largest basin, Basin 1, in November 2006 expected to be completed in 2008. Basin 4 construction is scheduled to be awarded in 2008 with completion in 2009. The two remaining construction features, Basin 2 and Basin 3, are scheduled for construction award in 2009 and completion in 2010.

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Appendix C 291 Projected Benefits: Should improve the quality of agricultural water runoff within the reservation, restore storage capacity, and return native vegetation. Start Date IFP: 1997 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2010 Original Estimated Cost: $75.3M (1996) 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $52.2M Southern CREW Project Additions & Imperial River Flow Way Status: This project aims to reestablish more natural flow patterns to 4,670 acres in the Southern Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed (CREW) and to restore Imperial River’s natural flow way to Estero Bay and reduce river nutri- ent loads. Land acquisition, restoration construction, and exotics control for the project is ongoing. Because of escalating land costs, and difficulty in restoring the hydrology in the areas south of Kehl Canal, the project team is considering changes to the project footprint. The SFWMD may be able to partner with Lee County Conservation 20/20 to advance acquisition of remaining project lands. The SFWMD continues to acquire land and con- struct the project. Observed Benefits: Several hundred acres of exotic species, primarily Melaleuca, have been treated. Exotic removal has taken place over approximately 2,560 acres. A number of canals have been plugged and berms breached and dirt roads removed to restore sheet flow in areas of the project footprint, restoring hydropat- terns on approximately 640 acres of wetlands. Start Date IFP: 1995 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2015 Yellow Book Original Estimated Cost: $33.5M ($3.4M Construction and $30.1M Real Estate) 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $29.4M Lake Okeechobee Water Retention & Phosphorous Removal Status: Construction of two new stormwater treatment areas within the Taylor Creek/ Nubbin Slough basin is physically complete. The interim construction and testing phases are in progress thru October 2008 and September 2009, respectively.

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292 Appendix C Projected Benefits: To improve the quality of water flowing into Lake Okeechobee. Start Date IFP: 1997 Completion Date IFP: 2006 (for construction; testing continues to 2009) 2007 IFP Cost: $21.9M Ten Mile Creek Water Preserve Area Status: Construction of an aboveground reservoir, pump station, and gated water level control structure was complete in 2006. Since that time, interim operations, testing and monitoring have been under way by the SFWMD and the USACE in accordance with the water quality permit and project cooperation agreement. During the process to transfer the project to the SFWMD for full operations, the USACE and the SFWMD immediately began identifying all concerns and plan- ning a course of action toward remediation. The additional project needs that have been identified have significant associated costs. Due to limitations on funding, reauthorization will likely be required to proceed. Projected Benefits: Will provides 6,000 acre-feet of seasonal or temporary stor- age of storm water from the Ten Mile Creek basin on 526 acres of land, which will moderate high-volume freshwater flows and salinity fluctuations in the St. Lucie Estuary and reduce sediment and nutrient loads to benefit 2,740 acres of estuarine habitat. Start Date IFP: 1997 Completion Date IFP: 2006 (construction only; monitoring continues) 2007 IFP Cost: $40.7M Lake Trafford Restoration Status: Construction and muck removal should have been completed by Decem- ber 2007, but dredging was delayed due to dry weather and low water. There was insufficient funding to award a contract when plans and specs were first completed. The SFWMD has assumed 100 percent of the cost of revamping the design and the construction with the intent of receiving credit and/or reimburse- ment upon completion and approval by the USACE. The containment facility and much of the dredging have been completed.

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Appendix C 293 Observed and Projected Benefits: Approximately 3 million cubic yards of organic sediments that blanketed the bottom of the lake were removed. Expec- tations include improving water quality, reestablishing native vegetation, and improving subsequent flows to Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. Start Date IFP: 1999 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2011 Yellow Book Original Estimated Cost: $15.4M 2007 IFP Estimated Cost: $35.3M SOURCES: SFERTF (2006; 2007a); SFWMD (2007); USACE (2007c); Williams (2008); http://www.saj.usace.army.mil/projects/ index.html, G. Landers, USACE, personal communication, 2008.

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