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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program Appendix B Biographies of Committee Members Edward Crawley, Co-Chair, is the Ford Professor of Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a professor of aeronautics and astronautics and of engineering systems. He received an S.B. and an S.M. in aeronautics and astronautics and an Sc.D. in aerospace structures from MIT. Dr. Crawley’s earlier research interests centered on structural dynamics, aeroelasticity, and the development of actively controlled and intelligent structures. He is the author of numerous journal articles in AIAA Journal, ASME Journal, Journal of Composite Materials, and Acta Astronautica. Dr. Crawley is credited with being one of the early contributors to the field of active structural control, and several of these articles have more than 100 citations; one has more than 700. For his work in the field, Dr. Crawley was awarded the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Award and the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) Adaptive Structures Medal. He is coauthor of two books in the field. Recently, his research has focused on the domain of the architecture and design of complex systems. His work spans a range from the development of underlying theory, typified by a recent paper on the algebra of systems, to the development of methods and tools, such as object process networks. It extends as far as a consulting role on the design of actual systems. Dr. Crawley is a fellow of the AIAA and the Royal Aeronautical Society (United Kingdom), and a member of three national academies of engineering: the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Science, the Royal Academy of Engineering (United Kingdom), and the National Academy of Engineering (United States). He has also served on numerous committees of the National Research Council (NRC). Bonnie J. Dunbar, Co-Chair, is president and chief executive officer of the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington. Dr. Dunbar holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in ceramic engineering from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. in mechanical and biomedical engineering from the University of Houston. She recently retired from the NASA Johnson Space Center where she was the associate director, technology integration and risk management, for the Space Life Sciences Directorate. Prior to working for NASA, Dr. Dunbar was a senior research and operations engineer with Rockwell International Space Division, working on the design and manufacture of the space shuttle thermal protection system. She was a guidance and navigation flight controller and payload officer in NASA Mission Control. Following her selection as a mission specialist astronaut, she flew five times and logged more than 50 days in space. She trained in Russia on the Soyuz spacecraft and was on the first space shuttle flight to dock with the Russian Mir Space Station. She has served as the payload commander on two flights: a Spacelab mission dedicated to microgravity research, the United States Microgravity Laboratory, and on the eighth shuttle
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program docking flight to Mir. Her flight experience includes operating the robotic manipulator system and training for contingency extravehicular-activity spacewalks. She is a member of the American Ceramic Society (fellow), the AIAA (fellow), the National Institute of Ceramic Engineers, and the Society of Women Engineers. She has been awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, and the NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal. In 2000, Dr. Dunbar was elected to the Royal Academy of Edinburgh, and in 2002, to the National Academy of Engineering. Gary L. Bennett is a consultant in aerospace power and propulsion systems for Metaspace Enterprises. Dr. Bennett received an A.A. (science) from Boise State University, a B.S. (physics) and a master of nuclear science (physics) from the University of Idaho, and a Ph.D. (physics) from Washington State University. He was the manager of advanced space propulsion systems and earlier the manager of advanced space power systems at NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., until 1994. He was responsible for managing a number of transportation technology programs, including hybrid propulsion, electric propulsion, low-thrust chemical propulsion, and advanced propulsion concepts. Prior to working at NASA, Dr. Bennett held positions in the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) space radioisotope power program supporting the Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES) 8/9, Voyager, Galileo, and Ulysses missions. He has authored or coauthored more than 150 technical papers, reports, and articles on power, propulsion, and space missions. Dr. Bennett has received a number of citations and awards from NASA, DOE, NRC, and AIAA for his work on space and terrestrial power and space propulsion. He has been elected a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Physical Society, and the British Interplanetary Society. Elizabeth Cantwell is the interim division leader for the International, Space and Response (ISR) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. She earned her Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. She received her M.B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Cantwell is responsible for the execution of projects from small principal-investigator-driven basic science through the delivery of large satellites and instruments into the space environment or other field deployments. She is also responsible for program execution across the entire ISR portfolio, including project management, strategic planning and execution of those plans for new business opportunities, and resource planning and allocation. Dr. Cantwell routinely works with senior program leaders and ISR management to maintain and strengthen the science and technology base for ISR activities, manage and develop the workforce, plan for and execute new facilities, and ensure effective line and program integration. She also identifies and develops relationships with external and internal customers, promotes and leads new initiatives, and creates national recognition for ISR’s capabilities. Dr. Cantwell has written and delivered numerous technical reports and presentations to academic conferences and journals, oversight bodies, and other clients. She has served as the academic reviewer for various societies and journals. Dr. Cantwell recently served on the NRC Committee on the Review of NASA’s ISS Roadmap and has participated in other NRC committees and panels. Shyama P. Chakroborty is currently the engineering manager and chief systems engineer in space exploration systems at Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems and formerly was the vice president and chief engineer of Microcosm heading a number of defense and space programs. Dr. Chakroborty received an M.S.M.E. from Ohio State University, a doctorate from Cleveland State University, and an M.B.A. from the University of California, Davis. Prior to joining Microcosm, he was the chief engineer and senior engineering manager of Aerojet in Sacramento, California. He has been involved in the design, development, and flight qualification of launch vehicles and spacecraft subsystems and systems. He is also an adjunct professor of aerospace and astronautical engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Chakroborty is the author of a comprehensive design manual on solid rocket motor and liquid rocket engine design. He has authored and presented a number of technical papers at various national and international conferences and for a number of journals and is a member of several professional organizations. He is a Federal Aviation Administration-licensed pilot and has flown fighter planes, including the MiG-25. He holds a certificate for completion of the cosmonaut training program from the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia.
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program Ramon L. Chase is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) consultant for Analytic Services, Inc. He received his master’s degree in public administration from the University of California. Mr. Chase consults for an advanced aircraft conceptual design activity under the FALCON program. He is a member of the DARPA government oversight team (Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology). Mr. Chase has supported DARPA advanced launch vehicles; Responsive Access Small Cargo Affordable Launch (RASCAL); Force Application and Launch from Continental United States (FALCON); Common Aero Vehicle (CAV); and immune building programs and is an expert in the following fields: aircraft, missiles, weapons (including penetrators), reentry vehicles, and spacecraft design and analysis; expendable and reusable space launch vehicle design and analysis; long-range strategic planning; investigative studies; space policy; hypersonics; and technology readiness assessment. Mr. Chase has written more than 30 technical papers on advanced space transportation systems, military space planes, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles, technology readiness assessment, and advanced propulsion systems. He is an AIAA associate fellow and has served on the AIAA Hypersonics Program Committee and the AIAA Space Transportation Technical Committee. Mr. Chase has chaired the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) Hypersonic Committee and the SAE Space Transportation Committee. Gary S. Geyer, U.S. Air Force (retired), currently a private consultant, has 39 years of experience in space engineering and program management. He holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from Ohio State University, an M.S. in electrical engineering, and an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Southern California. Colonel Geyer served for 26 years with the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and was the NRO System Program Office director for two major programs, responsible for the design, manufacture, test, launch, and operation of several reconnaissance satellites. He was one of 46 “Pioneers of National Reconnaissance” honored by the NRO in 2000 for their “significant and lasting contributions to the discipline of national reconnaissance.” Following his NRO service, he was vice president for a major classified program at Lockheed Martin, where he was responsible for all aspects of program and mission success. Colonel Geyer teaches courses in space design and in system engineering/program management at New Mexico State University. Kenneth Gwinn joined Sandia National Laboratories after receiving his master’s degree from Oklahoma State University. He works in the Solid Mechanics Department as a principal member of the technical staff. He has worked in many different engineering areas within the Engineering Sciences Center. This work includes vibration and shock design and analysis, in addition to nonlinear impact analyses. Mr. Gwinn has also worked in the Weapon Systems Center as the lead mechanical engineer for a reentry vehicle. He took entrepreneurial leave in 1995 from Sandia to assist in the commercialization of the Sandia air-bag technologies, which he helped invent. Mr. Gwinn has also published more than 40 technical papers and has been awarded eight patents dealing with air-bag research and development. Ayanna Howard is an associate professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she also holds the title of director of the Human-Automation Systems Laboratory, which carries out research and design of autonomy software based on human cognition. She holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering with a minor in computer science from the University of Southern California. Her specialty is the development of techniques for reasoning and learning in space applications. Prior to joining Georgia Tech, she was employed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a researcher in robotics. She has published more than 60 written works and released 10 software and hardware technologies for public licensing. Dr. Howard won the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Early Career Award in Robotics and Automation and the Lew Allen Award of Excellence for significant technical contributions, as well as a number of awards from NASA. She is the associate editor of the International Journal of Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, a senior member of IEEE, a member of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, and a senior member of the Society of Women Engineers. Steven D. Howe is the director of the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) operated by the Universities Space Research Association and the Idaho National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from Kansas State University. The CSNR facilitates research in and education about nuclear technologies for
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program space exploration and is currently engaged in developing new initiatives in nuclear power, nuclear propulsion, and advanced radioisotope power for space exploration. Prior to working at CSNR, Dr. Howe was employed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There, he oversaw the experimental nuclear data program element for the LANL nuclear weapons program. Dr. Howe has also worked on achieving several patents, including a container for transporting antiprotons and the antiproton production and delivery for the imaging and termination of undesirable cells. He has served as the chair of the NRC panel reviewing two of the NASA technology roadmaps: (1) In-Space Transportation and (2) High-Energy Power and Propulsion. He also served on the NRC Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. John R. Howell is the Ernest Cockrell, Jr., Memorial Chair and Baker Hughes Incorporated Centennial Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a former director of the Advanced Manufacturing Center at the University of Texas. Professor Howell received his Ph.D. in engineering, his M.S. in chemical engineering, and his B.S. in chemical engineering, all from the Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University). Professor Howell joined the faculty of the University of Texas at Austin. He has received national and international recognition for his continuing research in radiative transfer, particularly for adapting Monte Carlo techniques to radiative transfer analysis. His recent research has centered on inverse analysis techniques applied to the design and control of thermal systems with significant radiation transfer. Professor Howell served on the NRC Committee to Review and Assess Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant as well as on the NRC Panel on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. John E. Hurtado is an associate professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering for Texas A&M University. He received his Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from Texas A&M University. His current research interests include theoretical mechanics, structural dynamics, games, controls, and dynamics. Dr. Hurtado has worked in the Department of Aerospace Engineering for the past 6 years. Through his theoretical studies, his research has led to a better and clearer understanding of dynamic principles in three dimensions and to strong relationships between models of many-degrees-of-freedom physical systems and their representations as higher-dimensional bodies. Dr. Hurtado has published many technical papers and holds the following patents: Cooperative System and Method Using Mobile Robots for Testing a Cooperative Search Controller, Distributed Optimization System and Method, and Cooperating Mobile Robots. Ramkumar Krishnan is a senior staff materials engineer in the Energy Technology Laboratory of Motorola’s Embedded Systems Research Laboratories in Tempe, Arizona. He has also served as a lecturer and adjunct faculty in the Department of Electronic Systems at Arizona State University. He received his Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from MIT; an M.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville; and a bachelor’s degree in technology, chemical, and electrochemical engineering from the Central Electrochemical Research Institute in Tamil Nadu, India. Dr. Krishnan’s research interests are in the fields of fuel cells, batteries, and photovoltaics; the modeling of transport and kinetic processes in chemical and electrochemical systems; chemical and biological self-assembly; and the synthesis of nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoporous materials for nanoelectronics and magnetic storage applications. He has published a variety of journal articles in nanotechnology-related areas and has delivered two invited lectures on portable energy technologies. Ivett A. Leyva is a senior aerospace engineer in the Aerophysics Branch of the Space and Missile Propulsion Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory. There she focuses on the design of liquid rocket engines. She is an experimentalist, and currently she is studying the effects of acoustic fields on coaxial jets. She also works in the area of hypersonic boundary-layer transition. Previously, she was a senior aerodynamicist at Microcosm, Inc., where she was responsible for the development of ablative chambers and also performed numerical and analytical studies of subcomponents of Microcosm’s launch vehicles. Prior to working at Microcosm she was employed at General Electric’s (GE’s) Global Research Center, where she led the design, development, and testing of several
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program pulse detonation concepts. There, she coordinated joint projects with scientists from the former Soviet Union. Dr. Leyva holds several patents in the United States and Europe in the area of propulsion. She served on the NRC Committee on Air Force/Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion and the Steering Committee on Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics. She also serves on the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. Raymond Mariella is senior scientist for biosecurity and the director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University in physical chemistry. Dr. Mariella is also chair of NASA’s Science and Technology Working Group for the Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program. His previous employment was as a research associate at Allied Signal Corporate Research Center. His field of expertise is environmental monitoring and control. Dr. Mariella has delivered numerous talks and invited lectures in the general subject area of biodetection using nanoscale and microscale technologies. He is a recipient of the American Chemical Society’s Award in Analytical Chemistry and the Texas Society of Professional Engineers’ Award for Excellence in Mathematics, and he received the R&D 100 Award for the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System in 2004. He has participated in a number of workshops organized by the NRC. Daniel Masys is professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics and professor of medicine for the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He received his M.D. from the Ohio State University College of Medicine. Dr. Masys’s research interests include methods for analysis and metaanalysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related epidemiology data, Internet utilities for conducting clinical research, and the analytical informatics of gene expression profiling using microarray technologies. Previously he served as the director of biomedical informatics at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine; as the director of the UCSD Human Research Protections Program; and as professor of medicine. Dr. Masys served as chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and from 1986 through 1994 he was the director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, which is the computer research and development division of the National Library of Medicine. In this capacity he was the principal architect and first director of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which hosts the data from the Human Genome Project and other resources and tools for molecular biology. Dr. Masys was elected a member of the Institute of Medicine in 2001. Edward McCullough is a principal scientist at the Boeing Company. He has received his professional schooling mainly in nuclear engineering through the U.S. Navy (gaining a certification for nuclear engineering). Mr. McCullough focuses on concept development and advanced technology at Rockwell Space System’s Advanced Engineering and Boeing’s Phantom Works. He has researched innovative methods to reduce the development time of technologies and systems from between 10 and 20 years down to 5 years. He has experienced successes in the area of chemistry and chemical engineering for extraterrestrial processing and photonics for vehicle management systems and communications. These efforts included leading a chemical process development research team in a Skunk Works environment for 4 years. Mr. McCullough has led efforts for biologically inspired multiparallax geometric situational awareness for advanced autonomous mobility and space manufacturing. He recently developed several patents, including patents for an angular sensing system, a method for enhancing the digestion reaction rates of chemical systems, and a system for mechanically stabilizing a bed of particulate media. Mr. McCullough has served in a variety of professional societies and councils. He is a member of the board of trustees for the University Space Research Association, a member of the Science Council for the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science, and a charter member of the AIAA Space Exploration Program Committee. Douglas Mehoke is the assistant group supervisor and advanced technology manager in the Space Department Mechanical Design Group and supervisor of the Thermal Design Section at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). He holds an M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Stanford University. He has worked in the field of spacecraft and instrument thermal design for more than 25 years and has a wide background in the fields of heat transfer and fluid mechanics. His current research interests include heat transfer in
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program composite materials with high thermal conductivities and the design of thermally stable structures; he has detailed experience in the areas of thermal control materials, thermal modeling, electronic board thermal analysis, and convective heat transfer. Prior to joining the JHU/APL in 1983, he worked at the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in the area of spacecraft thermal control. Mr. Mehoke has published extensively on the thermal aspects of spacecraft design. He received the Robert W. Hart Research and Development Award in 1998. James F. Miller is the director of the Electrochemical Technology Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Dr. Miller received a Ph.D. and a master’s degree in physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also received a B.S. in physics from the University of Missouri at Columbia and an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago. He coordinates ANL’s electrochemical technology efforts in six divisions, including research on advanced batteries and fuel cells for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. Dr. Miller also coordinates all Argonne work on hydrogen production and storage for DOE/Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. He provides strategic planning and program development for ANL’s battery and fuel cell efforts. Dr. Miller served as the conference chair for the 2nd International Symposium on Hydrogen in Matter. He is an author or coauthor of more than 100 publications or presentations in journals, books, technical reports, or conference proceedings and has served on numerous committees, including the NRC Committee on Wright Centers of Innovation, the NRC Review Committee for NASA’s Low Emission Advanced Propulsion, the FreedomCAR Fuel Cell Tech Team, the ASME Fuel Cell Power Systems Committee, the International Energy Agency Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation, and the U.S. DOE’s Depleted Uranium R&D Uses Advisory Panel. Todd J. Mosher is the director of advanced systems at Microsat Systems, Inc. Before working for Microsat Systems, he was the senior manager of advanced exploration systems for Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. He has focused on the pursuit of NASA business associated with the Vision for Space Exploration, concentrating on in-space elements of the architecture. He also serves as the principal investigator for a strategic internal research and development project in autonomous rendezvous and docking. Dr. Mosher joined Lockheed Martin in the summer of 2005 after having served as an assistant professor at Utah State University (USU) in the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department since 2002. While there, his research interests were small satellites and payloads, advanced space system concepts, and new design methodologies. He joined USU after serving as the associate director of the Space Architecture Department at the Aerospace Corporation. He led many of Aerospace’s efforts in small spacecraft design. Dr. Mosher has more than 15 years of expertise in space systems engineering, especially related to NASA science missions and space transportation. Over the course of his career, he has also supported a variety of launch programs. Dr. Mosher previously served the NRC as chair of the Committee on NASA Communications and Navigation Capability in 2005 and as a member of the Committee for the Review of NASA’s Pioneering Revolutionary Technology Program and its supporting Panel on Enabling Concepts and Technologies from 2001 to 2003. Guillermo Trotti is the president of Trotti and Associates, Inc. (TAI). He received a master’s degree in architecture from Rice University. TAI is a design and consulting firm helping private and public organizations around the world design and develop new solutions for buildings, structures, products, and technologies in the areas of architecture, industrial design, and aerospace. The company specializes in designing habitats, structures, and systems to operate in extreme environments. TAI has worked under contract with the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts on a revolutionary mission architecture to explore the Moon with habitable rovers. The project Extreme Expeditionary Architecture: Mobile, Adaptable Systems for Space and Earth Exploration proposes self-mobilizing, transformable systems combining robotics, inflatable and foldable lightweight structures, intelligent materials, and highly autonomous systems to revolutionize human and machine exploration. TAI is also working with MIT on the Biosuit project, an advanced mechanical-counterpressure space suit for lunar and Mars surface exploration. Mr. Trotti is personally involved in every project as the lead designer and project director. He is a member of the American Institute of Architects as well as the Boston Society of Architects.
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A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program Gerald D. Walberg is the president of Walberg Aerospace. He received his Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from North Carolina State University and his M.S. and B.S. in aerospace engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. From 1957 to 1989, Dr. Walberg was employed at the NASA Langley Research Center, where he held positions ranging from research engineer to deputy director for space. Following his retirement from NASA, Dr. Walberg taught at the NASA/George Washington University Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences and then at North Carolina State University, where he was the director of the Mars Mission Research Center in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. In 1999 he retired from teaching and established Walberg Aerospace, a research company specializing in entry aerothermodynamics, trajectory optimization, and planetary mission analysis. Dr. Walberg was elected an AIAA fellow in 1988 and also gained Presidential Rank in the Meritorious Government Executive in 1988. He served on the NRC Committee on Space Facilities from 1993 to 1994. Ian Walker is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Clemson University. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. Professor Walker’s research centers on robotics, particularly novel manipulators and manipulation. His group is conducting basic research in the construction, modeling, and application of biologically inspired “trunk, tentacle, and worm” robots. Professor Walker is a fellow of the IEEE and a senior member of the AIAA. He currently serves as vice president for financial activities for the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society and is chair of the AIAA Technical Committee on Space Automation and Robotics. He has served on the editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on Robotics, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, and International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing. William W. Wang is currently a senior engineering specialist in the Propulsion Department of the Vehicle Systems Division of the Aerospace Corporation. He holds M.S. degrees (aeronautics and astronautics) from the University of Washington and a master of engineering from the Engineering Executive Program at UCLA. Mr. Wang has more than 25 years of experience in liquid propulsion systems and is an expert in liquid rocket engines for both U.S. and foreign space launch vehicles. He was a key member of several engine development programs. In addition, he has led many successful major engine test programs at both contractor and government test sites. His technical expertise is in propulsion system dynamics, combustion instability, and engine cycle performance. Marilee J. Wheaton is the general manager of the Systems Engineering Division of the Aerospace Corporation. She held numerous positions at Aerospace between 1980 and 1999 and from 2002 to the present, with particular expertise in cost engineering using parametric modeling. Most recently, as general manager of the Computer Systems Division, she provided management and technical leadership for computer science and technology, computer systems engineering, and software acquisition. Ms. Wheaton started with Lockheed in 1979 as a manufacturing engineer and joined Aerospace the next year. In 1999, she moved to TRW Systems (now Northrop Grumman Mission Systems) as a director in the office of cost estimation. In 2002, she returned to Aerospace. Ms. Wheaton is the recipient of both the Parametrician of the Year Award and the Keith Burbridge Service Award from the International Society of Parametric Analysts and is the 2007 recipient of the University of Southern California (USC) Center for Systems and Software Engineering Lifetime Achievement Award. Ms. Wheaton has a B.A. in mathematics and Spanish from California Lutheran University and an M.S. in systems engineering from USC, and she is a graduate of the UCLA Executive Program in Management.