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as armor plating on the bridges of ships and in locations near compasses in other military transport craft.

After the war, Morris and his students worked on explaining how heat treatment hardens and toughens tool and structural steels. They investigated the fundamentals of the martensitic transformation in steel and how this phase transformation improves its mechanical properties. Subsequent work on selfdiffusion and interdiffusion led to studies of microstructural changes during the tempering of iron alloys. Over a period of 50 years, Morris and his students created a body of basic knowledge on strengthening steel and made practical the ultrahigh-strength steels used today. Morris’s many seminal contributions to the mechanisms and kinetics of the martensitic transformation, tempering phenomena, strengthening mechanisms, age hardening of alloys, strain-induced transformations, and rapid solidification of alloys were milestones in the emerging field of materials science.

In 1971, Morris was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). When he received the phone message about his election, he thought it was a mistake because he was a metallurgist and an engineer, not a scientist, and he thought the call must have come from the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). However, a telegram confirmed that he had indeed been elected to NAS, one of the very few metallurgists to be so honored.

A year later, in 1972, he was elected to NAE. He subsequently served as a member-at-large of the National Research Council (NRC) Board on Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Programs (1986–1989), a member of the Steering Committee for the Materials Science and Engineering Study (1985–1989), and a member of the Panel for a Review of ONR Research Opportunities in Materials Sciences (1987–1988).

Morris’s service to the nation included taking on advisory roles to NAE, NAS, the National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. In recognition of his fundamental work on martensitic transformation and the strengthening of steel, President Carter awarded him the



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