understanding more common MEB disorders in children. Technological advances in large-scale, rapid-throughput genotyping have made feasible the study of the genetic vulnerabilities and underpinnings of more common disorders.
Second, advances in understanding and identifying gene–environment interactions have illuminated the ways in which specific genetic variants and life experiences both confer risk for and protect against developing MEB disorders. Third, much has been learned about the mechanisms of epigenetic modification of the genome that can confer enduring changes in gene expression and behavior. These epigenetic modifications have provided a much greater appreciation of the importance of biological adaptation of the developing organism to its environment. Bringing together knowledge in these three areas has important implications for the prospects of influencing causal biological pathways through modifications of the environment in new prevention intervention strategies (see Figure 5-3).