tion or control groups. The intervention reduced youths’ commercial access to alcohol and arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol among 18- to 20-year-olds (Wagenaar, Murray, et al., 2000).

Two quasi-experimental studies have also shown benefits in reducing alcohol-related problems. The Community Trials project reduced alcohol-related injuries and deaths among all age groups through community-wide environmental prevention activities and policy change (Holder, Saltz, et al., 1997). The study matched but did not randomize communities in California and South Carolina. In the intervention communities, the following were targeted: (1) community mobilization, (2) responsible beverage service, (3) increased enforcement of drunk driving laws and perceived risk of drunk driving detection, (4) reduced underage access, and (5) reduced availability of alcohol through the use of local zoning and other municipal controls on outlet quantity and density. The intervention produced significant reductions in nighttime injury crashes, alcohol-related crashes, assault injuries, and hospitalizations. Adults reported lower rates of drinking and driving, and sales of alcohol to minors were reduced. Adolescent alcohol use was not assessed.

Saving Lives (Hingson, McGovern, et al., 1996) aimed to reduce alcohol-impaired driving and related risks. The study compared six Massachusetts intervention communities and five control communities using a quasi-experimental design. The intervention involved a task force that designed specific activities for its community, including business information programs, media campaigns, speeding and drunk driving awareness days, high school peer-led education, speed-watch telephone hotlines, and police training. During the five years of program activity there was a 25 percent decline in fatal crashes and a 25 percent decrease in fatal crashes involving alcohol compared with the prior five years.

In contrast with the positive results of media messages related to smoking, however, evaluations of the National Anti-Drug Media Campaign have yielded mixed results. While there is some evidence consistent with a favorable effect of the campaign on parent outcomes, there is no evidence that the effect on parents translates into improved outcomes for their children (Orwin, Cadell, and Chu, 2006).

Derzon and Lipsey (2002) reviewed 72 studies evaluating the effects of a broad range of media interventions on substance use behavior, attitudes, or knowledge. Using pre-post gain effect size statistics, they found positive effects for those receiving media interventions compared with controls, including smaller increases in substance use, greater improvement in substance use attitudes, and larger gains in substance use knowledge. Intervention characteristics consistently associated with greater gains include communications directed at parents and other adults with influence over young people; messages communicated by video (compared with television,

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