reduce MEB disorders and related problems. Family and early childhood interventions appear to be associated with the strongest evidence at this time.

Interventions based in schools have demonstrated positive effects on violence, aggressive behavior, and substance use and abuse. Emerging evidence has indicated the potential for a positive impact of some of these interventions on academic outcomes. Communities have a role in supporting preventive interventions and in developing responses that address community needs and build on community needs.

Conclusion: Community-based organizations, particularly schools and health care providers, can help prevent the development of MEB disorders and related problems.

Although an increasing number of interventions have shown positive results related to reductions in the incidence or prevalence of MEB disorders, most measure highly relevant risk and protective factors but do not measure disorders per se.

Conclusion: Preventive interventions can affect risk and protective factors strongly associated with MEB disorders. Future research must determine the full impact of these interventions on MEB disorders.

Preventive interventions have increasingly demonstrated positive effects on multiple outcomes, but the range of outcomes assessed is also limited. The same type of intervention may demonstrate positive effects on different outcomes, given the limited nature of the outcomes assessed. Similarly, although academic outcomes are likely to be important to schools considering adoption of preventive interventions, because there is some indication of positive effects on academic achievement, this has been assessed in only a few studies. Inclusion of a broader range of outcomes could help in the identification of potential iatrogenic effects that can meaningfully inform the development of future interventions.

Recommendation 7-1: Prevention researchers should broaden the range of outcomes included in evaluations of prevention programs and policies to include relevant MEB disorders and related problems, as well as common positive outcomes, such as accomplishment of age-appropriate developmental tasks (e.g., school, social, and work outcomes). They should also adequately explore and report on potential iatrogenic effects.

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