developmental pathways that may lead to disorder and provide an empirical and theoretical basis for preventive interventions. The first presents available research on risk and protective factors related to prevention and promotion in a developmental context (Chapter 4). The second focuses on research related to genetics and developmental neuroscience, highlighting developmental plasticity and the important findings from research on epigenetics and gene–environment interactions that present potential intervention opportunities (Chapter 5).

Part II includes two chapters that present the evidence related to interventions aimed at individual, family, and community-level factors associated with mental, emotional, and behavioral outcomes (Chapter 6) and those that either target a specific disorder or are directed at overall promotion of health (Chapter 7). Given the potential relevance of population, group, and individual screening for the targeting of interventions, the next chapter discusses issues and opportunities related to screening (Chapter 8). The costs associated with MEB disorders and the available evidence on the benefits and costs of interventions discussed in Chapters 6 and 7 are discussed in the next chapter (Chapter 9). The last chapter in Part II outlines how methodologies have improved since the 1994 IOM report, methodological and statistical approaches to strengthen inferences, and the advantages of randomized and other designs. It also introduces methodological challenges for the next decade (Chapter 10).

Part III includes chapters that outline the frontiers for prevention science. It begins with a discussion of implementation; although there is an emerging implementation science, neither research nor practice related to implementation has kept pace with the available evidence, and this represents an important area of needed focus for prevention science (Chapter 11). Infrastructure issues, particularly systems concerns, and lack of funding and training are discussed next (Chapter 12). This part closes with a chapter that provides summative observations about the future of prevention (Chapter 13).

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