implementation to achieve greater public health impact. They suggest three interrelated sets of research requirements and findings to accomplish population-based prevention: “(1) rigorously demonstrating intervention effectiveness; (2) attaining sufficient levels of intervention utilization in diverse general populations, requiring study of recruitment/retention strategies, cultural sensitivity, and economic viability; and (3) achieving implementation quality, involving investigation of adherence and dosage effects, along with theory-driven, intervention quality improvement” (p. x). To accomplish this, it may be useful to view implementation as having three phases: adoption, sustainability, and moving to scale (see Figure 11-1). Prevention scientists, government organizations, state and community organizations, and community leaders have major roles throughout this process. Ideally, the results of these phases will feed back to earlier areas of research. Specific research questions related to each of these phases warrant additional attention:
Research questions related to the adoption of a prevention program into a service system, which routinely involves the formation of partnerships and the development of an infrastructure to support the technical, financial, administrative, monitoring, evaluative, and logistical needs related to the program.