communities to transport effective prevention programs into community settings. Additional research is needed to identify core components shared across programs. Major implementation challenges suggest new avenues of research.

Conclusion: Knowledge about effective strategies for implementing or adopting evidence-based prevention interventions is limited. New approaches to implementation represent the frontier of prevention research.

Recommendation 11-1: Research funders should support experimental research and evaluation on (1) dissemination strategies designed to identify effective approaches to implementation of evidence-based programs, (2) the effectiveness of programs when implemented by communities, and (3) identification of core elements of evidence-based programs, dissemination, and institutionalization strategies that might facilitate implementation.

Knowledge gained from evaluation of implementation approaches will be more generalizable if it is conducted in multiple settings. A number of evidence-based interventions are viable candidates for implementation. Evaluations that involve partnerships between states or communities ready to implement interventions and researchers could yield valuable results.

Recommendation 11-2: Research funders should fund research on state- or community-wide implementation of interventions to promote mental, emotional, or behavioral health or prevent MEB disorders that meet established scientific standards of effectiveness.

Although there are many evidence-based models, it is not clear how generalizable they are to groups other than the ones with which they were tested. Interest in an intervention is likely to be greater if it is culturally relevant and embraced by the community. Lack of relevance may contribute to interventions being implemented with limited fidelity and resultant limited outcomes. Addressing this may include replication with new populations as well as examining versions that strengthen the cultural competency of interventions.

Conclusion: Despite multiple dissemination venues, evidence-based interventions have not been implemented on a wide-scale basis. Where interventions have been implemented, they are often not implemented with fidelity, with cultural sensitivity, or in settings that have the capacity to sustain the effort.

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