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Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities
to three between FY 1993 (the last year included in the 1994 IOM report) and FY 2006.
NIDA currently funds five Transdisciplinary Prevention Research Centers (TPRCs) designed to bring together the expertise of basic and applied disciplines to accelerate the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Neuroscientists, behavioral and cognitive scientists, and drug abuse prevention researchers collaborate on discovery and translational research areas that have the potential for producing new approaches to drug abuse prevention. Similar mechanisms do not currently exist in NIMH or NIAAA or across the three institutes. NIAAA funds two prevention centers: the long-standing Prevention Research Center based at the University of California, Berkeley, and a new center focused on youth alcohol prevention.
Intervention Research Portfolio Snapshot. The FY 2006 abstracts for projects focused on young people (ages 0-25)6 provide a one-year snapshot of NIMH, NIDA, and NIAAA prevention intervention research funding. Abstracts were coded by two reviewers on a variety of categories, including intervention type (universal, selective, indicated), trial type (efficacy, effectiveness, implementation), targeted risk factors, outcomes, and mediators; targeted population; and the location and provider of the intervention.7 The coding results were analyzed for 35 NIMH abstracts, 77 NIDA abstracts, and 53 NIAAA abstracts.
We conclude from this analysis (see Box 12-1) that there is an emergence of effectiveness trials, but a lack of research that experimentally evaluates factors influencing implementation and dissemination of interventions. Appendix F provides a detailed summary of the analysis results.8 The analysis argues for greater attention to economic analyses as well as evaluations that assess multiple outcomes. The current research portfolio does not address gaps identified by the committee, including the need to expand research to cover more settings that provide opportunities to prevent MEB
At the time the information was submitted by NIMH and NIDA, FY 2006 was the most recent year for which complete data were available. NIAAA, which submitted information later, provided data for FY 2007. NIMH grants provided to the committee included those that are coded in their database as targeting ages 0-25. It did not provide grants coded as “age unspecified,” which may include some grants funded by NIMH that target this population.
Abstracts classified by NIMH as prevention of negative sequelae were included, but only projects considered by the committee to be prevention were included in this analysis. The coding was refined through a pilot phase involving multiple reviewers, with final coding conducted by two independent reviewers. Where the two reviewers did not agree on a code, a consensus was reached in consultation with a third coder. This was needed most often for the intervention type (24 percent of the abstracts) and trial type (38 percent of the abstracts).
This appendix is available online only. Go to http://www.nap.edu and search for PreventingMental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People.