BOX 12-1

Prevention Intervention Research at NIMH, NIDA, and NIAAA, Fiscal Year 2006

Intervention Type and Trial Type

  • NIDA and NIAAA funded a greater proportion of universal intervention trials than NIMH.

  • NIMH funded the largest proportion of efficacy trials (51 percent); NIDA grants were more evenly divided between efficacy and effectiveness; and NIAAA funded the largest proportion of effectiveness trials (53 percent).

  • Overall, there were relatively few implementation or dissemination projects (4-18 percent), although these were most common for NIDA. Most included an experimental comparison of different strategies.

  • A very small number of grants (6-11 percent) included any mention of economic analysis of the intervention.

  • Close to half of the projects across institutes mentioned long-term follow-up (more than one year) as part of their protocol.

Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Mediators

  • HIV/AIDS (27 percent) and risky sexual behavior (29 percent) were the most common target outcomes for NIMH grants. These were followed closely by depression (25 percent), conduct problems (20 percent), academic performance (18 percent), and anxiety (16 percent).

  • HIV/AIDS and risky sexual behavior were also frequently targeted by NIDA and NIAAA. About one-quarter of NIDA projects also targeted academic performance, conduct problems, and other mental health issues.

  • The majority of NIMH grants focused on measuring single outcomes, with only a third of the grants targeting multiple outcomes. Grants funded by NIDA and NIAAA were more likely to address multiple outcomes.

  • Projects targeted primarily individual-level risk factors, and over three-quarters of grants for all three agencies target the child as the mediator; that is, the project aimed to change the skills or beliefs of the targeted group of young people.

disorders, greater attention to cultural appropriateness and adaptation, and interventions for young adults.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC has an active public health research portfolio that includes a focus on child development. In its 2006 publication Advancing the Nation’s Health: Guide to Public Health Research, 2006-2015, health promotion is



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