children on a regular basis should have available training that enhances their knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward prevention of MEB disorders. Thus training and education not only require a broad effort, but also are extraordinarily complex and challenging.

The committee considers core aspects of training to include activities that enhance the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and experience of professionals who will carry out the various elements of programs addressing prevention of MEB disorders. Training must be directed to achieve research capabilities, teaching skills, and the capability to implement prevention programs as well as collect and analyze data on outcomes from such efforts.

The 1994 IOM report contained limited information on training activities in the areas of prevention science and prevention implementation, but it concluded that training needs and output were approximately in balance with workforce needs. It reported a total of 22 NIH-funded research trainee slots per year and estimated that there were no more than 500 professionals conducting prevention research related to MEB disorders. The report roughly estimated that there was a need for approximately 1,000 investigators in the field and proposed that numbers of trainees as well as support for training should gradually increase to match expected growth in this field of investigation.

Based on assessment of progress in prevention training since the 1994 IOM report, the current status of training efforts, and gaps to be bridged, the committee concludes that refinement, translation, and broad implementation of preventive interventions are likely to languish for another 14 years unless more extensive and robust training for both researchers and practitioners is realized.

There are no data about workforce numbers or training needs specifically directed to prevention of mental disorders and substance abuse. One difficulty arises from the fact that prevention science and prevention implementation are not distinct disciplines, but are embedded in related disciplines, such as psychology, psychiatry, social sciences, social work, nursing, and medical specialties. Neuroscience, epidemiology and biostatistics, developmental sciences, and education could be added to this list. This positioning of prevention sciences and prevention implementation should be viewed as a strength, but it also creates difficulty in estimating both need and response.

The committee concurs with the 1994 IOM report that prevention training and education should be multidisciplinary, both for research and implementation, and should be layered on the professional skills acquired in traditional training programs. Trainees must be prepared not only to conduct prevention research in their own specialty area, but also to collaborate with colleagues in related areas. Therefore, there is a need to coordinate and integrate training across many disciplines and across a spectrum of



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