prevention functions. The complexity of prevention efforts calls for broad and coordinated organization of training as well as multidisciplinary funding mechanisms.
Since the 1994 IOM report, membership in the Society for Prevention Research increased 450 percent from 125 in 1992 to 690 in 2005 (see http://www.preventionresearch.org/about.php, accessed February 8, 2008). A search of the SPR online membership database identified 339 members who reported mental health as a content area, 434 who identified drugs, and 401 who identified alcohol.21 Other societies address specific areas in prevention research and program implementation (e.g., child abuse and neglect), but membership numbers do not capture those with a prevention orientation to MEB disorders.
One measure of training activity is the number of training grants awarded by NIH institutes for prevention training related to MEB disorders. Based on the committee’s analysis of FY 2006 training grants22 with either a major or minor focus on prevention:
The number of individual training grants, or F series (n = 13), was nearly the same as in 1994 (n = 12). These awards were relatively evenly dispersed across the three institutes (five each by NIMH and NIDA, three by NIAAA).
The number of institutional training grants (n = 29) grew substantially since 1994, when there were only five. Institutional prevention training grants addressing mental health were awarded to a variety of academic programs, including prevention science programs, schools of public health, and clinical psychology programs and departments of psychiatry, with a number mentioning opportunities for training across disciplines. NIMH funded a substantial majority of these institutional training awards (19 of 29). Nevertheless, institutional awards targeting some aspect of prevention made up less than 10 percent of all training awards from NIMH.
The largest number (n = 69) of training awards targeting prevention of MEB disorders consisted of career development grants (K series). The majority of these (n = 60) included a major focus on prevention of MEB disorders, often along with nonprevention objectives. These grants represent a substantial investment in career develop-