Cultural relevance. Research on how interventions developed with one cultural or ethnic group work with other groups (see Chapter 11).
Economic analyses. Need for guidelines, measures, and funding for economic analyses (see Chapter 9).
Dissemination and implementation. Methodologies and strategies for dissemination and implementation of preventive interventions, including research on (1) state- and community-wide implementation, (2) alternative approaches to implementation that vary such factors as type of provider or training, (3) potential strategies for use of the mass media and Internet, and (4) identification of program components that might facilitate implementation (see Chapter 11).
Competencies. Need for improved understanding of etiology and development of competencies, their protective role, and development of measurement tools (see Chapter 4).
Neuroscience and prevention. Approaches to linking findings from brain research and research on gene–environment interactions with intervention research, to test hypotheses related to epigenetics and neuroscience, and development of guidelines on ethics of using individually identifiable information (see Chapter 5).
Gaps in current research. Interventions for such groups as young adults and young people with chronic health problems, in such settings as primary care, comprehensive interventions, and approaches to addressing poverty (see Chapters 6 and 7).
To assist in the implementation of a prevention research agenda and to help distinguish prevention research from treatment research, this report calls on the prevention community to adopt a definition of prevention that focuses on populations that do not currently have a disorder, including three levels of intervention: universal (for all), selective (for groups or individuals at greater than average risk), and indicated (for high-risk individuals with specific phenotypes or early symptoms of a disorder). However, it also calls on the prevention community to embrace mental health promotion as within the spectrum of mental health research. In addition, prevention researchers are advised to broaden the focus of their research to include consideration of cost-effectiveness and the impact of interventions on multiple outcomes.