Developmental Stage

In the Absence of Interventions

Illustrative Intervention Opportunities

Middle school

Early adolescent engages in risky behaviors, such as smoking, using alcohol or other drugs, delinquency, or risky sexual behavior

Families and schools provide high-level reinforcement for prosocial behavior


Early adolescent experiences few academic successes and bonds with deviant peers

Young people at risk due to academic or peer-interaction problems are identified and provided with individual or family intervention options

High school

Adolescent lacks self-esteem, has limited academic success, engages in antisocial behaviors, and does not develop positive health habits

Family- and school-focused programs shape attitudes and behaviors around substance abuse, delinquency, and sexual behaviors and provide self-identity and coping skills


Depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse increase

Adolescents are routinely screened for early signs of depression and other MEB disorders, with appropriate interventions provided

Young adulthood

Young adult flounders in transition to independence, including continued education, employment, marriage, and childrearing

Community programs support decisions about education, work and relationships, and model parenting skills, including constructive parent–child communication


Young adults struggle with readiness to have and to parent children

Interventions are available in college, the workplace, and community settings as needed to reduce obstacles to raising a family, including academic, job-related, and marital difficulties

health at the level of member states and communities (Commission of the European Communities, 2005). The green paper launched a process that included consultation with relevant European institutions, governments, health professionals, and stakeholders in the research community and other civic sectors (Commission of the European Communities, 2005). These

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