TABLE 2-2 Prevalence Estimates of Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders in Young People

Diagnosis or Diagnostic Group (N of studies contributing to estimate)

Prevalence (%)

Standard Error (%)

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

One or more disorders (44)

17.0

1.3

14.4

19.6

Unipolar depression (31)

5.2

0.7

4.0

7.0

Any anxiety disorder (29)

8.0

1.0

6.2

10.3

Generalized anxiety disorder (17)

1.3

0.3

0.9

2.0

Separation anxiety disorder (17)

4.1

0.9

2.6

9.4

Social phobia (15)

4.2

1.1

2.4

7.3

Specific phobia (13)

3.7

1.3

1.7

7.7

Panic (12)

0.7

0.2

0.3

1.5

Posttraumatic stress disorder (7)

0.6

0.2

0.3

1.1

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (34)

4.5

0.7

3.3

6.2

Any disruptive behavior disorder (23)

6.1

0.5

5.4

7.3

Conduct disorder (28)

3.5

0.5

2.7

4.7

Oppositional defiant disorder (21)

2.8

0.4

2.1

3.7

Substance use disorder (12)

10.3

2.2

6.3

16.2

Alcohol use disorder (9)

4.3

1.4

2.1

8.9

NOTE: The prevalence estimates from each study were transformed to logit scale and their standard errors computed using the available information about the sample size and prevalences. Using weights inversely proportional to estimated variances, weighted linear regression models were fit in SAS, using PROC GENMOD with study as a fixed effect (class variable). The overall estimate (on the logit scale) and its standard error were then used to recompute the overall prevalence and its standard error using the delta method.

SOURCE: Based on a meta-analysis for the committee by Alaattin Erkanli, Department of Biostatistics, Duke University. A list of the data sets used in the meta-analysis is in Appendix D, which is available online.

diagnosis show the highest and lowest estimates, and the upper and lower bounds of the box show the interquartile range of the estimates—that is, the 75th and 25th percentiles of the range of estimates. It shows estimates only for diagnoses reported by at least eight studies (number of studies shown in parentheses). The mean estimate for any diagnosis was 17.0 percent (standard error, SE, 1.3 percent) and the median 17.5 percent. The most common diagnostic group was substance abuse or dependence, including nicotine dependence (10.3 percent, SE 2.2 percent). Anxiety disorders were common (8.0 percent, SE 0.1 percent), followed by depressive disorders (5.2 percent, SE 0.07 percent) and ADHD (4.5 percent, SE 0.07 percent).

Some disorders, notably anxiety disorders, have a much wider range of estimates than others. The range of estimates for specific phobias was particularly broad. It is also noticeable that the top 25 percent of the range



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