Middle childhood

Dysregulated growth hormone process2,3

Left frontal lobe hypoactivation2,5

Temperament: apathy2

Negative cognitions about self and negative explanatory and inferential style1,2,3



Insecure attachment1

Disengagement, involuntary, and emotion-focused coping2

Poor social skills: impulsive, aggressive, passive, withdrawal, poor social problems solving2,3

Parental depression1,2,3

Poor parenting: rejection, lack of parental warmth, high hostility, harsh discipline, high maternal negative affect3

Child abuse/maltreatment1


Marital conflict3,4,5

or divorce1

Aversive family environment3

Peer rejection2,3,5 and poor-quality peer relationships3

Stressful life events2,5

Self-generated stressors4,5

Poor grades/achievement1,3


Community stressful events such as interpersonal conflict, separation, and loss1,4,5

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