Developmental Period




School and Peers

Neighborhood and Community


Female gender1,2,3,4,5

Early puberty4

Dysregulated growth hormone process2,3

Left frontal lobe hypoactivation2

Difficult temperament: inflexibility, low positive mood, withdrawal, poor concentration2

Negative cognitions such as low global self-worth, perceived incompetence, negative explanatory and inferential style5


Subsyndromal depressive symptoms2 and dysthymia4

Insecure attachment1,5

Disengagement, involuntary, and emotion-focused coping2

Poor social skills: communication skills and problem-solving skills2

Extreme need for approval and social support4

Parental depression1,2,3

Parent-child conflict1,2,3

Poor parenting: parental rejection, lack of parental warmth, rejection, high hostility, harsh discipline,2,3 high maternal negative affect3

Child abuse/maltreatment1

Single parent family (for girls only)1


Marital conflict3,4,5

Family conflict3

Aversive family environment3

Peer rejection2,3,5 and poor-quality peer relationships3

Stressful events2,5

Self-generated stressors4,5

Poor grades/achievement1,3

Poverty and low SES

Community-level stressful events such as conflict, separation, and loss1,4,5

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