TABLE E-3 Risk Factors for Substance Abuse

Developmental Period

Context

Individual

Family

School and Peers

Neighborhood and Community

Preconception/prenatal

Genetic predisposition1,2,3

Prenatal alcohol exposure3

 

 

 

Infancy

 

 

 

 

Early childhood

Difficult temperament1,2,3

Cold and unresponsive mother behavior Parental modeling of drug/alcohol using1

 

 

Middle childhood

Poor impulse control1,2,3

Low harm avoidance1,2

Sensation seeking1,2

Lack of behavioral self-control/regulation2

Aggressiveness1,2,3

Anxiety2

Depression2,3

Hyperactivity

ADHD1,2,3

Antisocial behavior1,3

Early persistent problem behaviors1

Early substance use1,2

Permissive parenting1,3

Parent–child conflict1

Low parental warmth1

Parental hostility1,3

Harsh discipline1,3

Child abuse/maltreatment2

Parental/sibling modeling of drug using1,2

Parental favorable attitudes toward alcohol and/or drugs1,2,3

Inadequate supervision and monitoring1,2,3

Parental involvement

Low parental aspirations for child

Lack of or inconsistent discipline

School failure1,2

Low commitment to school1

Peer rejection1,2

Deviant peer group2,3

Peer attitudes toward drug2

Interpersonal alienation1,2,3

Laws and norms favorable toward use1,2

Accessibility/availability1,2

Extreme poverty fort hose children antisocial in childhood1,2



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