Behavioral disengagement coping

Negative emotionality

Conduct disorder

Favorable attitudes toward drugs


Early substance use

Antisocial behavior

School failure1

Low commitment to school1

Not college bound

Aggression toward peers

Associating with drug-using peers


Norms (e.g., advertising) favorable toward alcohol use


Young adulthood

Lack of commitment to conventional adult roles

Antisocial behavior

Leaving home

Attending college

Substance-using peers


1Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992).

2Mayes and Suchman (2006).

3Sher, Grekin, and Williams (2005).

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