Index

A

Academic.

See also Educational attainment;

School

competence, 76

engaged time, 184

information systems, 318

performance, 4, 10, 18, 77, 82, 88, 89, 90, 99, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109, 152, 158, 169, 180, 184-185, 210, 217, 231, 254, 255, 292, 293, 315, 344, 382, 390, 517, 535

priorities, 311

research, 303, 306-307, 333

standards, 79, 314-315, 369

training, see Workforce training

Academic–community collaborative approach, 306

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, 228, 365-366

ADAMHA Reorganization Act, 64

Adaptive control beliefs, 90, 102, 106, 141

Addictive disorders, 129-130.

See also Alcohol abuse and dependence;

Drug abuse;

Substance use and abuse

Administration for Children and Families, 270, 338, 347, 348, 354, 357, 381

Adolescence

antisocial behavior, 99, 167, 169, 171, 300, 383-384

anxiety, 192-193, 195, 530

bipolar disorder, 45, 50-51

brain development, 122, 127, 128, 142

comorbidities, 48

competence in, 76

cost-effectiveness of interventions, 256, 257, 260

costs of treatment, 16, 248, 249

decision making, 22

depression, 4, 46, 48, 55, 65, 91, 92, 152-153, 167, 195-196, 197, 225, 228, 238-239, 303-304, 379, 384, 390, 515, 524

design of programs, 329-330

developmental competencies, 72, 75, 76

eating disorders, 232-233

factors affecting healthy development, 76, 80

family disruption, 172, 174

foster care, 175

interventions, 18, 21, 22, 23-24, 25, 50, 59, 77, 90, 91, 98, 152-153, 155, 158, 159, 165, 167-170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 185, 187, 189, 192-193, 200, 201, 203, 209, 210, 216, 255, 256 n.16, 270, 303-304, 306-307, 351

maltreatment, 102, 103, 130, 226

mental health promotion, 203



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Index A anxiety, 192-193, 195, 530 bipolar disorder, 45, 50-51 Academic. See also Educational attainment; brain development, 122, 127, 128, 142 School comorbidities, 48 competence, 76 competence in, 76 engaged time, 184 cost-effectiveness of interventions, 256, information systems, 318 257, 260 performance, 4, 10, 18, 77, 82, 88, 89, costs of treatment, 16, 248, 249 90, 99, 100, 106, 107, 108, 109, decision making, 22 152, 158, 169, 180, 184-185, 210, depression, 4, 46, 48, 55, 65, 91, 92, 217, 231, 254, 255, 292, 293, 315, 152-153, 167, 195-196, 197, 225, 344, 382, 390, 517, 535 228, 238-239, 303-304, 379, 384, priorities, 311 390, 515, 524 research, 303, 306-307, 333 design of programs, 329-330 standards, 79, 314-315, 369 developmental competencies, 72, 75, 76 training, see Workforce training eating disorders, 232-233 Academic–community collaborative factors affecting healthy development, approach, 306 76, 80 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical family disruption, 172, 174 Education, 228, 365-366 foster care, 175 ADAMHA Reorganization Act, 64 interventions, 18, 21, 22, 23-24, 25, 50, Adaptive control beliefs, 90, 102, 106, 141 59, 77, 90, 91, 98, 152-153, 155, Addictive disorders, 129-130. See also 158, 159, 165, 167-170, 171, 172, Alcohol abuse and dependence; Drug 174, 175, 185, 187, 189, 192-193, abuse; Substance use and abuse 200, 201, 203, 209, 210, 216, 255, Administration for Children and Families, 256 n.16, 270, 303-304, 306-307, 270, 338, 347, 348, 354, 357, 381 351 Adolescence maltreatment, 102, 103, 130, 226 antisocial behavior, 99, 167, 169, 171, mental health promotion, 203 300, 383-384 5

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540 INDEX moderating factors for, 90 Agoraphobia, 93 onset of MEB disorders, 1, 49, 54, 92 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health peer influences, 52, 85, 90, 96, 99, 106, Administration, 64 159, 168, 171, 181, 267, 270, 390, Alcohol abuse and dependence. See also 528 Substance use and abuse pregnancy, 40, 55, 104, 107, 160, 168, age at onset, 49 253, 517 costs of, 252 prevalence of MEB disorders, 15, 42, 45, definitions, xxiii 46, 48 developmental aspects, 97-98, 99 PTSD, 195 effectiveness of interventions, 18, 68, 98, research on, 12, 218-219, 536 202-203, 204-205, 354 risk factors, 167-168, 172, 176, 177, federal coordination of programs, 349 215, 225, 524, 526, 529, 530 monitoring, 51 risky sexual behavior, 99, 159, 160, 168, prevalence, 43, 44, 97 169, 306-307, 383-384, 390 prevention-related events, 21 schizophrenia, 94, 95, 189, 280, 526 research funding, 340 school dropout, 104 risk factors, 16, 90, 96-98 self-regulatory control, 137, 141, 146 underage drinking, 18, 21, 29, 97-98, substance abuse and dependence, 49, 51, 202-203, 204-205, 252, 340, 349, 95-98, 99, 159, 167, 168, 169, 170, 354 171, 187, 200, 201, 203, 269, 287, Alcohol use disorder, xxiii, 43, 44 300, 324-325, 390, 529 All Stars, 256 n.16 surveys of, 35-36, 37-38, 46, 48, 51 American Academy of Pediatrics, 23, 215, violence exposure, 107 238 Adolescent Medicine Training Program American Board of Family Medicine, 366 Requirements, 228 American Board of Professional Psychology, Adolescent Transitions Program, 153, 158, 367 159, 168, 170, 256 n.16 American Indians, 177, 203, 302-304, African Americans, 38, 54, 90, 100, 159, 536 169, 179, 187, 198, 234, 342, 536 American Legacy Foundation, 322 Agency for Healthcare Research and American Nurses Credentialing Center, 368 Quality, 162, 338, 361, 374 American Psychological Association, 23, Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 228 25 Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social- Angelman syndrome, 116-117, 119-120 Emotional, 228, 232 Animal models, xxiv, 11, 116-117, 121, Aggression 126, 127, 130-131, 132, 134, 135, age at onset, 164 140, 144, 145, 149, 213 design of interventions, 325 Antisocial behavior efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, costs, 1 68, 109, 152, 155, 158, 159, 164, design of intervention, 390 165, 166, 167, 170, 173, 179, 181- efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, 183, 184, 185, 209, 210, 217, 226, 109, 152, 158, 159, 163, 164, 171, 284, 518 172, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 210, lifestyle factors and, 212, 214 272, 517, 518 and MEB disorders, 16, 29, 164, 181, genetic factors, 117-118, 234 188, 259, 272, 523, 528 protective factors, 90, 99, 108, 118 parental, 167, 208-209 risk factors, xv, 99, 107, 108, 117-118, prevention research centers, 342 163, 248, 324, 528 risk factors for, 165 and substance abuse, 96-97 screening for, 226, 231 survey data, 383-384 sex differences, 140, 272 treatments, 171

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54 INDEX Anxiety disorders, 29. See also specific Beat the Timer game, 210 Behavior. See also Antisocial behavior; disorders age at onset, 72, 93 Conduct disorder efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, hormonal influences, 140-141 153, 176, 192-194 Behavioral inhibition, 93, 94, 530 genetic factors, 117 Benefits and costs of prevention, 5, 15 neurodevelopmental factors, 133 cost-benefit analysis, xxiii, 243, 244-245, pathways to, 106 258 prevalence, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 72, 192 cost-effectiveness analysis, xxiii-xxiv, risk factors, 18, 52, 93-94, 530, 531 243-245, 253-258, 259, 260 sex differences, 140 current knowledge, 3, 256-258 treatment strategies, 133-134, 136, 192 economic need for prevention, xiv, Anxiety sensitivity, 93, 193 245-252 Arachidonic acid, 213 intergenerational effects, 247 Arizona State University, 342, 368 meta-analyses, 515 Association for Medical Education and methodology, 242 Research in Substance Abuse, 361 morbidity and quality of life, 246-248 Assuring Better Child Health and productivity costs, 242, 248-249 Development, 227-229 quality-adjusted life years, 244-245, 256 Athletic competence, 76 recommendations, 11, 260, 261 Attachment, 68, 77, 78, 89, 94, 99, 103-104, research needs, 11, 13, 259, 260, 261 131, 134-136, 141, 142, 146, 162, total cost estimates, 251-252 175, 389, 516, 522, 523, 524, 530 utilization of services, 249-250 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Bereavement, 83, 106, 154, 155, 209, 222, (ADHD), 29 315, 316, 319 age of onset, 49, 50, 72 parental, 89, 104, 105 comorbidities, 47, 48-49, 96 post, 106 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, Big Brothers Big Sisters Program, 210-211 152, 159, 165, 186, 191, 214, 216 Bipolar disorder, 42, 45, 49, 50-51, 115, neurodevelopmental aspects, 133, 138, 120, 138, 191, 206 139, 140-141 Blueprints for Violence Prevention, 22, 185, prevalence, 42, 43, 44, 45 200, 211, 309, 317, 353 racial/ethnic similarities, 45 Borderline personality disorder, 135-136 risk factors, 54, 118, 131, 214, 215, Boston University School of Public Health, 216, 528 342 sex differences, 45, 54, 140 Brain development stigma and labeling, 234 addictive disorders and, 129-130 treatment strategies, 138 apoptosis and synaptic pruning, 122, Australia, 165, 192, 391-392 125, 126-127, 129, 130, 134, 140, Autism, 37, 39, 41, 48, 54, 115, 117, 118, 144 120, 123, 125-126, 136, 137, 213- cell differentiation and migration, 123- 214, 228 124, 140 Autism spectrum disorders, 42, 191 communication connections, 124-126 Awareness, intervention, and methodology complexities of, 121-123 (AIM) approach, 23 continuation with age, 127-129 genetic influences, 114-120 hormonal influences, 140-141 B neurulation, 123 nutrition and, 213 Baltimore public schools, 76, 184 research advances in, 113-114 Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 179 sensitive periods, 130-131

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542 INDEX sex differences, 140-141 prevalence, 102 sources of knowledge on, 120-121 preventive interventions, 25, 158, 181, timeline, 122 515 Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional protective factors, 102, 117-118 Assessment, 228 reactive interventions, 174-175 and risk of MEB disorders, 99, 100, 101, 106, 117-118, 135-136, 172 C screening for, 226, 234 sexual abuse, 52, 99, 102, 103, 106, California, 205, 228, 322, 329, 349, 353 181, 515 Carolina Abecedarian project, 158, 180, Child-Parent Centers, 158, 180, 254-255 254, 255 Child Support Enforcement Program, 101 Carter Center Mental Health Program, 23, Child Trends, 23-24 25 Child Well-Being Index, 55 CASASTART, 255 n.14 Children (preadolescent). See also Child Casey Family Program, 175-176 maltreatment; Early childhood; Center for the Study and Prevention of Family; Infants; Parenting; Preschool Violence, 22, 185, 353 children; School Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, age at onset of MEB disorders, 49-50, 56, 381 141 Community Preventive Services Task aggressive and antisocial behavior, Force, 180, 185 164-167 Guide to Community Preventive Services, anxiety, 93, 192-193, 530 202 attention problems, 95 prevention initiatives, 180, 185, 347, brain development, 122, 126, 127-128, 348, 349, 357 142 research funding, 338, 344-345 comorbidies, 87 surveys, 37, 39, 40, 347, 348 competence in, 76, 77, 99, 172 Technical Assistance Centers, 357 depression, 106, 195-196, 523 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid factors that affect healthy development, Services, 57, 381 79, 211-216 Charge to committee, 27-31 interventions, 155, 161, 164-167, 192- scope of study, xiv-xv, 2, 3, 30-31 193, 194-196 terminology, 28-30 neurotoxin exposures, 214-215, 324 Chicago nutrition, 213, 215-216 Child-Parent Centers, 254, 255 peer influences, 96 HIV Adolescent Mental Health Program, PTSD, 194-195 170, 307 risk factors, 63, 87, 95, 96, 99-100, 106, public school programs, 187, 204, 334 108, 123, 130, 161, 523, 526, 528, Child Abuse Prevention Program, 348 530 Child Behavior Check List, 232 schizophrenia, 526 Child Development project, 255 n.14 self-regulatory control, 96, 137, 141 Child Development Review, 228 substance abuse, 96, 528 Child maltreatment television viewing, 215 adversity pathway, 106 Children’s health, defined, 68 and attachment, 134-135 Children’s Health Act of 2000, 41 and brain development, 130-131 Clarke Cognitive-Behavioral Prevention efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, Intervention, 196, 197 152, 181 Clifford Beers Foundation, 23 emotional abuse, 100 Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 23 meta-analyses, 515 Cochrane Collaboration, 26 n.1

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54 INDEX Cognitive-behavioral therapy, 153, 162, age at onset, 50 188, 192, 194, 256 and competence, 76 Cognitive reappraisal, 137, 138 cost and health burdens, 15, 250 Collaborative HIV Adolescent Mental cost-effectiveness of interventions, Health Program, 306-307 256 Communities efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, bonding to, 108 4, 152, 158, 159, 166, 177, 186, collective efficacy, 108 191 disadvantaged neighborhoods, 107-108 etiological theory, 267 factors affecting healthy development, intervention design and opportunities, 2, 78-80 379, 390 implementation of interventions, 27, prevalence, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47 298, 299, 305-307 protective factors, 118 infrastructure, 18 race/ethnicity and, 54 Internet and electronic media risk factors, 16, 52, 54, 72, 214, 267, interventions, 188-189 529 mental health promotion, 77, 81 screening for, 226 multicomponent interventions, 203 sex differences, 54, 140 participatory research, 274-275, synergy with other MEB disorders, 96 304-305 Conduct Problems Research Group, 186, prevention interventions, 187-189, 256 202-206 Congressional Mental Health Caucus, 24 risk factors, 16, 88, 101, 106-109, 110, Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008, 221 21 screening, 221, 222-223, 232, 239 Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice substance abuse interventions, 202-206 and Delinquency, 349 violence in, 106-109 Coping skills, xxvi, 66, 67, 74, 79, 80, 90, Communities Mobilizing for Change on 92, 96, 99, 101, 104, 105-106, 174, Alcohol, 204 197, 209, 210, 272, 303, 390, 523 Communities That Care, 188, 222-223, Cortisol reactivity, 90, 175 232, 239, 300-301, 328, 349, 353, Cost-benefit analysis, xxiii, 151, 244-245, 356 258 Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of Cost-effectiveness of interventions America, 350 analysis, xxiii-xxiv, 27, 243, 244-245, Community-Based Participatory Prevention 256, 260 Research, 345 disorder-specific, 256 Community Mental Health Services Block early childhood, 4, 253-255 Grant, 7, 372 substance use, 256 Community Trials project, 205 youth development, 255 Comorbidity of disorders Costs. See Benefits and costs of prevention defined, xxiii Council on Social Work Education, 366 rates, 37, 46-48 Critical incident stress debriefing, 194 Compassion Capital Fund, 348 Cross-sectional studies, xxiv, 39, 48, 87 Comprehensive Child Development Cultural adaptations Program, 253 n.12 in interventions, xxiii, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, Computerized Diagnostic Interview 17, 160, 196, 198, 199, 216, 218, Schedule for Children, 39, 40 233, 297, 298, 302-305, 306, 307, Conditioned learning, 132 313, 319-320, 326, 331, 335, 336, Conduct disorder 343-344, 345, 386, 387, 395, 537 adversity pathways, 106 in screening, 233, 238

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544 INDEX D Department of Labor. See U.S. Department of Labor Dads for Life, 173 Depression Defining prevention age at onset, 49, 50, 92, 106, 191 cost-benefit perspective, 60-61; see also antidepressants, 120, 129 Indicated interventions; Selective children and adolescents, 4, 46, 48, 55, interventions; Universal interventions 65, 91, 92, 152-153, 167, 195-196, current approach, 64-65 197, 225, 228, 238-239, 303-304, debates, 62-64 379, 384, 390, 515, 524 developmental perspective, 60 comorbidities, 48, 96, 99, 153, 192, 528 early frameworks, 60-61 cost and health burdens, 15, 181, 247, IOM 1994 framework, xiv, 59-60, 61- 248 62, 65 cost-effectiveness of interventions, 253, issues in, 59-64 256 mental health promotion component, cultural adaptation of programs, 303 65-69 data sources, 511, 512, 513, 516, 517 NAMHC approach, 62-63, 65 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, personalized medicine (preemptive 91, 152-153, 155, 176, 178, 180, psychiatry) concept, 63-64 182, 184, 193-194, 195-197, 216, public health perspective, 60, 61, 64 225, 311, 377, 391-392 recommendations, 14, 69 epidemiology, 30, 42-50, 54, 92, 103, treatment distinguished from prevention, 379, 384 xiii, xiv, 1, 2, 19, 29-30, 59, 60, 61, genetic component, 52, 115, 117, 118, 62, 65, 69 120 Delinquency. See also Deviant peers gender and, 54, 92, 140 comorbidities, 183 major depressive episode rates, 40, 46, design of interventions, 267 153, 195, 197 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 68, meta-analyses, 515 90-91, 168, 169, 170, 172-173, 183- neurodevelopmental factors and, 129, 184, 300, 301 140 grant programs, 348, 349 parental, 3, 4, 9, 52, 53, 87, 92, 93, 101, implementation of interventions, 187, 104, 105, 161-162, 167, 172, 176, 270, 289, 300, 301, 308, 316 178, 180, 196-197, 199, 209, 221, opportunities for intervention, 390 222, 225, 226, 233, 237, 247, 256, rates, 54, 78 350, 389, 393 risk factors, 78, 89, 109, 167, 181, 183, pathways to, 106, 512 248, 267 peripartum, 161-162, 350 screening for interventions, 223, 224 preventive interventions, 2, 25, 66, 92-93, Delivery systems for services 138, 172, 188, 195-197, 198, 199, clearinghouses, 356 311, 312, 316, 389, 393, 394, 515 identifying effective interventions, 22, protective factors, 76, 89, 109-110, 214, 352-355 215, 225 linking research and services, 355-356 research, 25, 38, 178, 344, 363, 385, recommendations, 371-374 420 technical assistance, 356 risk factors, 18, 52, 76, 91, 92-93, 99- Department of Education. See U.S. 100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 109- Department of Education 110, 115, 117, 118, 167-168, 177, Department of Health and Human Services. 178, 213-214, 225, 231, 238-239, See U.S. Department of Health and 247, 522-525 Human Services screening for, 9, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 65, Department of Justice. See U.S. Department 161-162, 221, 226, 228, 234, 237, of Justice 238-239, 350, 389

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545 INDEX self-care tools, 162 Disruptive behavior disorders. See also stigma, 234 Conduct disorder; Oppositional training of researchers and defiant disorder interventionists, 363, 365, 369 age at onset, 49 treatment, 138, 162, 197, 215, 249 comorbidities, 47, 48 unipolar, 43 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, Depressogenic cognitive style, 92-93 158, 167, 184, 214 Development and Well-Being Assessment, pathways, 272 38 prevalence, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46 Developmental cascades, 76 research center, 342 Developmental competence, xxiv, 67, 7 sex differences, 45, 54, 272 4-75 Dissemination of program information. defining, 75-76 See also Implementation and factors affecting, 77-81 dissemination of interventions preschool education and, 179 defined, xxiv Developmental competencies, xxiv, xxvi, 12, trials, xxiv 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 99, 110, 160 Divorce, 4, 53, 56, 66, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, Developmental delays, 100 89, 102, 104-105, 106, 155, 158, Developmental framework 172, 173, 189, 221, 225, 237, 267, age-related patterns of competence and 278, 315, 319, 342, 370, 523, 524 disorder, 72 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 213 biopsychosocial interactions, 74, 75 Dopamine transporter gene, 118 developmental tasks, 74 Drug abuse. See also Substance use and ecological perspective, 73-74 abuse mental health promotion, 74-81 adult outcomes, 99-100 multiple comtexts, 73-74, 85-86 age at onset, 49 recommendations, 109-111 college interventions, 201-202 research opportunities, 75-76, 81 community interventions, 203-204 risk and protective factors, 81-91 costs of, 1, 242, 249, 251 targeting interventions, 91-104 curriculum “dosage” requirements, 308 Developmental neuroscience data on, 38, 39, 40, 41, 48, 55, 383 brain development, 12-13, 113-114, effectiveness of interventions, 21, 68, 120-131 109, 153, 159, 169, 184, 187-198, defined, xxiv 200-201, 204, 209, 211, 269, 287 genetic perspectives, 12-13, 114-120 epigenetic influences, 96, 120 neural systems, 131-134 etiological model, 271-272 and prevention, 4, 95, 141-146 evaluation of programs, 353, 355 recommendations, 11, 12-13, 148, 149, impacts of, 181 374 infrastructure for prevention, 347, 348, Developmental screening, 163 350, 357 Developmental tasks, accomplishment of, 1- international models, 394 2, 13, 14, 72, 74, 75-76, 77, 81, 92, longitudinal models, 265, 289 99, 172, 176, 217, 374-375. See also monitoring, 51, 55 Developmental competencies opportunities for intervention, 390 Deviant peers, 52, 85, 90, 96, 99, 106, 159, parental, 52, 95-96, 237 168, 181, 267, 270, 390, 528 pregnancy and, 161-162 prevalence, 42, 48, 51, 379 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, xv, xxiv, xxvi, xxvii, 7, prevention-related events, 22 28-29, 40, 42, 45, 54, 56, 222, 225 protective factors and mediaters, 96, Disability adjusted life years, 17, 242, 246, 269, 272 248 n.5, 256 n.15 public policies, 323-324, 381

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546 INDEX research funding, 340, 342, 343 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, 162 risk factors, 16, 96, 99, 101, 104, 108, Educational attainment, 106, 160, 180 168, 528-529 Effectiveness of interventions. See also school interventions, 308, 311, 314 Cost-benefit analysis; Evaluation screening for, 233 of preventive interventions; specific training in prevention, 359, 366 MEB disorders universal interventions, 19, 205, 272 clearinghouses, registries, and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) information resources, 22, 24, 25, program, 200-201, 256 n.16 26-27, 353, 355 Duke University, 342 defined, xxiv Dysthymia, 103, 197, 522, 523, 524 federal resources tied to, 26 growth in research base, 21, 151-154 for multiple disorders, 153, 170 for multiple risk and protective factors, E 86 principles of, 21, 23 Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, standards of evidence, 24 and Treatment, 227 statutory mandates, 21 Early childhood. See also Preschool children trials, see Randomized prevention trials anxiety, 192-193 Efficacy of interventions, 3, 343. See also comorbidities, 48 Personal or self-efficacy cost-effectiveness of interventions, cost-efficacy, 257 253-255 cultural considerations, 302, 306 education interventions, 152, 158 defined, xxv, 27, 266 factors affecting healthy development, design issues, 355, 373 77, 78 established, 4, 16, 27, 64, 91, 165, 185, meta-analyses, 516 216, 256, 297 risk factors in, 522, 526, 528, 530 funding for research, 344, 534 Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems progression to implementation, 306, initiative, 318, 348 307, 312, 319, 321, 325, 326, 327, Early Childhood Environment Ratings 349 Scale, 310 standards of evidence, 24, 354-355, 373 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- trials, xxv, 14, 153, 199, 257, 262, 266, Kindergarten Cohort, 318 268, 273, 285, 294, 312, 325, 344, Early Head Start, 101, 178-179, 199, 271, 355, 382, 394, 515 310, 329 Eicosapentaenoic acid, 213 Early Intervention Foster Care, 175 Epidemiology of MEB disorders Earned Income Tax Credit, 101, 177, 178, age at onset, 1, 15, 28, 35, 49-50, 54, 72 324 comorbidity, 37, 46-48, 87 Eating disorders, 39, 42, 102, 138, 191, data collection and monitoring system, 206, 365, 516 6, 7-8, 36, 38, 51, 53, 54, 55-56, 98, EcoFIT (Ecological Approach to Family 380, 383-384, 387, 395 Intervention and Treatment), 153, defined, xxv 170 incidence, xxv, 2, 4, 6, 9, 15, 27, 30, 31, Economic issues. See Benefits and costs of 36, 37, 38, 40, 44, 49-51, 55, 56, prevention; Funding 57, 92, 94, 152, 159, 170, 186, 195, costs of MEB disorders, xiii, xv, 1-2, 5, 196, 197, 216, 217, 225, 257, 365, 17, 242, 247 377, 383, 387, 395 reimbursement for screening, 227, genetic studies, 117 235-236 prevalence, 6, 15, 27, 31, 35, 37, 38, 40, reimbursement for services, 350-352 42-49, 55-56, 57, 64, 72, 217, 365, Economic Policy Institute, 100 383, 387, 395

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547 INDEX F rate trends, 50-51 recommendations, 7-8, 55-56, 380 Familias Unidas, 170 research methods and data, 36-42 Family. See also Divorce; Parent–child risk exposure, 51-54, 56 relationship; Parental; Single-parent sociodemographic groups at risk, 59 households use in prevention, 35-37, 54 adversity pathways, 106 Epigenetics, xxv, 4, 11, 12-13, 31, 32, 63, conflict, 92, 99, 101, 104, 105, 110, 114, 119-120, 142, 145, 146, 147, 167, 168, 170, 173 148, 262, 286 disruption, 3, 53, 102, 104-106, 158 Ethical issues, 95, 143-144, 149, 207, 235, dysfunction, 16, 91, 99, 102, 104-106, 269, 270-271, 274, 280-281, 282, 526, 527 286, 386 factors affecting healthy development, Etiology of MEB disorders, xxv, xxvii, 78-80, 100-101 12, 13, 53, 110, 117, 120, 143, genetic studies, 115 267, 269, 271-272, 292, 294, 365, mother–stepfather home, 88 386 protective processes, 92 European Action Plan for Mental Health, Family Bereavement Program, 174 388-389 Family-focused prevention interventions European Network for Mental Health adolescents, 160, 171 Promotion and Mental Disorder for child maltreatment, 174-175 Prevention, 391 combining school interventions with, Evaluation of preventive interventions 158, 165, 166, 185-187, 273, 312 challenges, 205-206 for depressed parents, 3, 196-197 economic analyses, 242, 244-245, for divorcing families, 172-173 258-262 early adolescence, 167-170 funding, 293 early childhood and childhood, 164-167 nonrandomized designs, 286-288 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, recommendations, 7, 14, 336, 373, 158, 160-178 380 fetal development and infancy, 160-161 trials, see Randomized preventive trials; foster care, 175-176 Statistical analysis of trials HIV/AIDS prevention model, 160, Externalizing behaviors. See also 168-170 Aggression; Attention deficit home visiting, 162-164 hyperactivity disorder; Conduct maternal sensitivity and infant disorder; Drug abuse; Oppositional attachment, 162 defiant disorder parentally bereaved children, 173-174 and competence, 76 peripartum depression, 161-162 defined, xxv poverty reduction, 4, 160, 176-178 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, preterm births and prenatal care, 161 173, 174, 177, 178, 182, 191, 209, spanning developmental periods, 216 172-176 intervention design, 98 teenage pregnancy prevention, 160 prevention-related events, 23-24 young adulthood, 171-172 progression of, 106, 107, 164, 181, 272 Family Matters, 256 n.16 protective/mediating effects, 89, 90, 98, Family Talk Intervention, 199, 394 105 Fast Track, 152, 159, 182, 186, 210, 226, research needs, 178, 189 250, 256, 259, 284 risk factors, 16, 82, 85, 88, 98, 101, Fear extinction, 132, 133, 134 108-109, 160, 272 FEAR strategy, 193 screening, 230-231, 369

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548 INDEX Federal Executive Steering Committee on Global Burden of Disease project, 247 Mental Health, 349 Good Behavior Game, 152, 153, 158, 184, Federal/National Partnership, 349 186, 208, 209, 255 n.14, 272, 284, Finland, 392, 393-394 293 Food and Drug Administration, 258 Government Performance and Results Act Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 55, of 1993, 21 379 Great Smoky Mountains Study, 49, 50, 52, Foster care, 104, 135, 171, 175-176, 267- 93 268, 312, 316, 329, 365, 535 Guiding Good Choices, 255 n.14 Foundation for Child Development, 55 Fragile X syndrome, 52, 116-117, 125-126 H Framingham Heart Study, 51 FRIENDS framework, 192-193 Hawaii, 76, 309-310 Funding. See also individual agencies Head Start, 166, 178, 180-181, 199, 231, braiding of research and practice, 6, 7, 255, 261, 270-271, 310, 347, 348 348-349, 372, 380 Health Resources and Services federal, 308-309, 339-345, 346-348 Administration, 41, 348, 349, 357, insurance, 350-352 361, 368, 381 organizational structure, 340-341 Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities, 232 for preventive services, 308-309, Healthy Families America, 309-310 346-352 Healthy Families New York, 158, 164, 310 by private organizations, 346 Helping America’s Youth, 349 recommendations, 372-373 Hispanics, 38, 39, 54, 170, 199, 213, 231, for research, 7, 338-352 536 state, 349-350 HIV/AIDS, 104, 174, 283, 329, 344, 535 prevention, 30, 168-170, 189, 281, 283, 306-307, 313, 332, 341 G HIV SMART AntiRetroviral Trial, 329 Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act Suicide Home Instruction Program for Preschool Prevention Program, 348 Youngsters, 253 n.12 Gene association studies, 115 Home visitation programs, 21, 25, 103-104, Generalized anxiety disorder, 43, 44, 153, 142, 152, 154, 155, 156, 162-164, 194 174, 179, 186, 208, 226, 232, 253, Genetics 254, 273, 309-310, 317, 319, 350, in developmental neuroscience, 4, 12-13, 351, 354, 389, 393, 516 114-120, 146-147 Home Visitor Trial, 273 endophenotypes, 116 Hypervigilance, 103, 136 epigenetic effects, xxv, 4, 11, 12-13, 31, 32, 63, 114, 119-120, 142, 145, 146, I 147, 148, 262, 286 gene–environment interactions and Illinois, 170, 187, 204, 228, 254, 255, 307, correlations, 4, 12-13, 53, 63-64, 90, 315, 334, 350 108, 114, 117-119, 144-145, 146, Implementation and dissemination of 147, 291 interventions intervention opportunities, 247-248 best practice guidelines, 309 research recommendations, 11, 148 capacity building, 317-318 as risk component, 52-53, 63, 92, 93, challenges, 313-321 94, 95, 96, 106, 117-118, 144-146 in child welfare settings, 312 Genome community-driven, 27, 299, 305-307 defined, xxv community partnerships, 298 modifications, 116, 120, 144, 147

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54 INDEX complementary strategies, 321-325 naturalistic large-scale public health cultural adaptation of interventions, research and, 333-334 xxiii, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, 17, 160, 196, REACH model, 325 198, 199, 216, 218, 233, 297, 298, recommendations, 11, 336 299, 302-305, 306, 307, 313, 319- technology and, 13, 218, 331 320, 326, 331, 335, 336, 343-344, trials, xxv, xxiv, 328-329 345, 386, 387, 395, 537 Impulse control disorders, 72, 100, 138, data systems, 318 140, 212, 528. See also Attention dissemination and adoption of principles, deficit hyperactivity disorder; 322-323 Conduct disorder; Oppositional early childhood programs, 309-311 defiant disorder existing evidence-based programs, Incidence of MEB disorders. See 298-302 Epidemiology; individual disorders experience with existing programs, Incredible Years Program, 158, 165, 166, 308-313 185, 273, 312 family-based interventions, 319-320 Indicated interventions funding, 313-314 challenges, 207 Internet and electronic media, 12, 13, component in multilevel interventions, 188-189, 190, 206, 218, 312, 330- 168, 186, 312 331, 386, 387 cost-effectiveness, 259 in juvenile justice settings, 312 defined, xxv-xxvi, 2, 61, 62, 63, 66, 69, models, 300-302 386 monitoring, 317 developmental neuroscience and, 143 organizational context, 320-321 effectiveness/efficacy, 63, 91-98, 153, participation and retention rates, 165, 179, 183, 189, 193, 195, 196, 318-320 197, 203, 207 in primary care settings, 312-313 examples, 66, 165 public education and, 321-322 implementation, 73, 224, 312, 315-316, public policy and, 323-325 319, 333, 347 recommendations, 7, 334-336 infrastructure for, 340, 343, 347 research needs, 325-334 opportunities for, 143, 149 scaling up interventions, 325-326, preemptive psychiatry concept, 63 330 research funding and needs, 259, 340, in schools, 308-309, 311-312, 314-315 343, 534, 535 service system priorities, 314-316 school-based, 183, 311-312, 315-316, training, 317 369 Implementation and dissemination research, screening, 9, 154, 162, 221, 222, 223 9, 12 substance use prevention, 18 advances in, 4, 16-17, 27 Indices of Multiple Deprivation, 239 approaches, 325-328 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, cycle, 326 229-230 defined, xxv Infant Development Inventory, 228 encouragement designs, xxv, 329-331 Infant Health and Development Program, fidelity in, xxv, 307, 308, 309, 312, 313, 253 n.12 317, 320, 328, 330, 335, 336, 371, Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment, 374 232 identifying early adopters, 332 Infants on increasing adoption and participation attachment, 68, 77, 78, 89, 94, 99, 103- rates, 329-334 104, 131, 134-136, 141, 142, 146, opinion leaders and, 332 162, 175, 389, 516, 522, 523, 524, market research and, 333 530

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552 INDEX N prevention research centers, 341-343, 360 National Academy of State Health Policy, preventive intervention research, 64, 227, 228 264, 339-344, 345, 367, 372, 374, National Advisory Mental Health Council 534, 536 (NAMHC), 21, 22, 23, 62, 65 Primary Prevention Branch, 341 National Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 205 social work program research, 367 National Association of Pediatric Nurse training for researchers, 359-360, 361, Practitioners, 238 367 National Association of School treatment intervention research, 340, 341 Psychologists, 29, 369 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and National Association of State Alcohol and Alcoholism, 2, 27-28, 339-344, 345, Drug Abuse Directors, 350 359, 360, 374, 534, 536 National Association of State Mental National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2, 27, Health Program Directors, 350 41, 355 National Center for Chronic Disease Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention and Health Promotion, 40 Prevention Research, 340 National Center for Health Statistics, 39 prevention-related events, 22, 24, 25 National Child Abuse Data System, 102 prevention research branch, 340 National Children’s Study, 38, 41 research funding, 265, 339-344, 345, National Collaborative Perinatal project, 106 374, 534, 536 National Comorbidity Study, 25, 102 training grants, 359, 360 National Comorbidity Survey, 35, 37, 42, Transdisciplinary Prevention Research 46, 48, 49 Centers, 264, 341, 342, 343, 360 National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, National Institutes of Health 35-36, 37, 49 Computer Retrieval of Information on National Council for Suicide Prevention, 25 Scientific Projects (CRISP), 359 n.22 National Death Index, 283 coordination of funding across institutes, National Health and Nutrition Examination 8, 374, 375, 377, 380 Survey, 38, 39, 46 linking research and service, 355 National Health Interview Survey, 38, 39 MEB prevention research funding, 8, National Highway Traffic Safety 261, 338, 339, 359, 372, 375, 377 Administration, 323 Office of Prevention Research, 349 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, Prevention Research Coordinating 40 Committee, 339 National Implementation Research recommendations for, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, Network, 325 110, 148, 149, 260, 294, 372, 374- National Institute of Child Health and 375, 380, 381, 385 Human Development, 41, 339-340, Research, Condition, and Disease 374 Categorization system, 339 National Institute of Justice, 7, 372, 381 Roadmap, 264 National Institute of Mental Health, 2, 27 training for researchers, 358, 359, 375 Child and Adolescent Treatment and National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Preventive Intervention Research Health, 102 Branch, 341 National Prevention Network, 350 cost estimates for mental disorders, 242 National Registry of Evidence-Based evaluation research, 6 Programs and Practices, 22, 25, 353, prevention program agenda, 355, 372 355 prevention-related events, 21, 22, 23, 24, National Research Council, 22, 24, 27, 68, 25 230 prevention research branch, 340-341 National Science Foundation, 265

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55 INDEX O National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools, 308 Obsessive compulsive disorder, 42, 93, 117, National Survey of Children’s Health, 41 138 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Obstetric complications, 94-95 38, 40, 46, 48, 55, 56 Ohio, 234 Netherlands, 392, 393 Omega-3 fatty acids, 213-214 Neural systems. See also Brain development Oppositional defiant disorder, xxv, 41, 42, attachment, 134-136 43, 44, 45, 47, 50, 52, 72 n.1, 76, compensatory and neuromodulatory 117, 177, 186 systems, 138-139 Oregon Social Learning Center, 170, 175, defined, xxvi 342 hormonal influences, 140-141 Other Social Influence/Skills Building injury, 4, 95 Substance Prevention Program, 256 learning and memory, 120, 123, 125, n.16 128-129, 131-134, 140 self-regulatory control, 137-138 social relatedness, 136-137 P synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning, 122, 125, 126-127, 129, 130, 134, 144 Pacific Institute for Research and Neurotoxins, 161, 214-215, 324, 363 Evaluation, 342 New Beginnings Program, 158, 172, 173 Panic, 39, 43, 44, 93, 188 New England Coalition for Health Parent–child relationship, 68, 76, 82, 88, Promotion and Disease Prevention, 90, 96, 102, 105, 117-118, 158, 24-25 163, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 176, New Freedom Commission on Mental 204, 210, 255, 368, 389, 390, 524, Health, 21, 24, 234 528. See also Attachment; Child New Mexico, 234 maltreatment; Parenting New York, 76, 107, 158, 163, 164, 307, Parent Management Training, 391 310, 315, 318 Parental No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 21, 56, aggression, 167, 208-209 229, 311, 314-315, 318 death (bereavement), 52, 83, 89, 104, Nonrandomized evaluations 105-106, 154, 155, 173, 174, 209, defined, xxvi 222, 315-316, 319, 517 interrupted time-series designs, 287 depression, 3, 4, 9, 52, 53, 87, 92, 93, natural experiments, xxvi, 101, 119, 101, 104, 105, 161-162, 167, 172, 177, 333-334 176, 178, 180, 196-197, 199, 209, pre-post designs, xxvii, 160, 205, 287, 221, 222, 225, 226, 233, 237, 247, 354, 373 256, 350, 389, 393 quasi-experimental trial, xxviii, 153, education, 68 160, 163, 175-176, 187, 194-195, HIV/AIDS, 174 204, 205, 206, 352 incarceration, 99, 104 regression discontinuity designs, 287-288 mental illness, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94, 99, North American Prodrome Longitudinal 102, 172, 226 Study, 208 substance abuse, 52, 86, 97, 99 North Carolina, 186, 228, 249, 350 unemployment, 52, 87 Norway, 38, 391 Parenting Nurse-Family Partnership, 158, 163-164, consistency, 88, 105, 164 253-254, 255, 293, 298-299, 304, genetic component, 145 308-309, 317-318 interventions, 89, 158, 162-165, 179, Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training, 209-210 368

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554 INDEX maternal nurturing/neglect, 118-119, efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 136, 141 101, 108, 166, 177, 186 meta-analyses, 517 and implementation of interventions, monitoring and supervision of children, 211-212, 236, 311 52, 96, 97, 99, 168, 170, 171, 212, moderating/mediational factors, 4, 76, 528 82, 89-90, 100, 176 negative/harsh, 82, 88, 90, 92, 110, 164 natural experiment, 101, 177 overcontrolling and intrusive, 93-94 and parent–child relations, 102 positive, 4, 68, 82, 105, 158, 163, 165, prevalence and incidence, 52, 53, 100, 167, 168, 171, 174, 188, 189, 208- 324 210, 391 preventive interventions, xv, xxviii, 3, punitive, 85, 88, 91, 101 101, 219, 324, 391 temperament and, 99 research needs and initiatives, 12, 77, Parenting Through Change, 172-173 101, 177-178, 190, 261, 386, 535 Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental and risk of MEB disorders, 86, 99, Status, 228 100-101, 102, 107-108, 110, 168, Peer influences, 52, 85, 90, 96, 97-98, 99, 176-177, 221, 382, 523, 524, 528 104, 106, 159, 168, 171, 181, 198- and screening, 9, 83, 222, 239 199, 200, 267, 270, 390, 528 Prader-Willi syndrome, 116-117, 119-120 Peer-to-peer tutoring, 210 Pregnancy Penn Optimism Program, 198 adolescent, 40, 55, 104, 107, 160, 168, Penn Prevention Program, 198 253, 517 Penn Resiliency Program, 196, 198 fetal brain vulnerability, 11, 123, 148, Pennsylvania, 186 161, 213, 526 Commission on Crime and Delinquency, nutrition, 212-214 Research-Based Programs Initiative, peripartum depression, 161-162 349 prenatal care, 141, 161 Pennsylvania State University, 265 preterm births, 161 Perry Preschool Program, 158, 180 prevention, 155, 160, 168, 253, 517 Personal or self-efficacy, 68, 75, 79, 80, programs and interventions, 141, 155, 105-106, 166, 194, 209, 389 158, 162-164, 179, 389 Pervasive developmental disorders, 42, 45, research needs, 148 191 risk factors for, 55, 107 Physical health problems, 17-18, 27, 77, smoking during, 118, 123, 131, 160- 100, 102, 104, 141, 192, 211, 231, 161, 163 247, 348, 382, 391, 531 substance abuse, 161 Positive Attitudes Toward Learning in surveys, 40 Schools, 234 Preintervention research, 83, 326 Positive Parenting Program, 158, 165, 167, Preschool children 188, 391 behavioral concerns, 15 Posttraumatic stress disorder developmental competence, 179 meta-analyses, 517 interventions, 142, 179-181, 208 neural system disturbances and, 133 prevalence of MEB disorders, 45 prevalence, 42, 43, 44 screening for disorders, 231-232 prevention interventions, 153, 194-195, teacher training, 369-370 225, 517 President’s Commission on Excellence in risk factors, 103, 105, 107, 172 Special Education, 229 screening for, 226 Prevalence of MEB disorders. See also Poverty Developmental framework analytical issues, 45, 87, 261 comorbidity, 46-48 and developmental challenges, 100-101 cumulative, 46

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555 INDEX data sources, 511-514 Prevention Science and Methodology defined, xxvii Group, 264-265 generally, 1, 42-46, 64 Prevention system lifetime, 72 component examples, 389-390 multiple disorders, 43, 44 coordinated approach, 377-382 rate trends, 48-49 development of strategy, 379-380 and screening, 223-225 funding, 384 Prevention of MEB disorders. See also goal setting, 379 Defining prevention; Interventions international perspectives, 388, 390-392 availability of programs, 1 monitoring system, 384 benefits, generally, 241 research refinement and expansion, core concepts, 17-18 385-386 defined, xiv, 36 standard setting, 384 economic perspective, 20, 241-244; see state and local system development, also Benefits and costs of prevention 382-384 focus of, xv training, 384 health promotion component, 59 vision for the future, 387-388 interdisciplinary nature of, 18 Preventive interventions. See Communities; philosophical perspective, 20 Indicated interventions; Interventions; political science perspective, 20 School-based interventions; Selective population health perspective, 19 interventions; Universal interventions progress since 1994 IOM report, 21-27 Primary care, screening in, 161-162, 226, rationale, 1-2, 19-20 227-229, 232, 236 treatment distinguished from, xiii, xiv, 1, Problem behaviors. See also Aggression; 2, 19, 29-30, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 69 Alcohol abuse and dependence; window of opportunity, 50, 54, 55 Antisocial behavior; Drug abuse; Prevention research. See also Evaluation Risky sexual behavior; Substance use of preventive interventions; and abuse; Violence Implementation and dissemination defined, xxvii, 252 research; Randomized prevention targeting, 181-183 trials; Research recommendations; Project Adapt, 328 Project ALERT, 200, 201, 256 n.16 individual agencies advances since 1994, 2, 4 Project Competence, 76 communicating results, 143 Project Launch, 348 defined, xxvii Project Northland, 204, 256 n.16 developmental neuroscience, 4, 144-146, Project STAR, 256 n.16 148-149 Project Toward No Tobacco Use, 256 n.16 focus, 30 Promising Practices Network, 22 funding, 8, 9, 338-352 Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, linking services to, 355-356 142, 181, 182, 186, 210 methodological challenges, 291-292 PROmoting School-community-university organizational structure, 8-9, 340-341, Partnerships to Enhance Resilience, 380, 385 301 parity with treatment research, 9, 385 Promotion. See Mental health promotion portfolio snapshot, 343-344 Protective factors. See also individual poverty reduction, 177-178 disorders and behaviors recommendations, 9, 292-294, 374-375, correlation with each other and with risk 380-385 factors, 86 research centers, 341-343 defining, xxvii, 82 screening models, 9 developmental perspective, 81-91 effects of, 87-88

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556 INDEX genetic, 117-118 replications, 292 influence over time, 88-91 risk and protective factors in design of, intelligence as, 213 83-85, 86 in multiple contexts, 85-86 of scalability, 274 for multiple disorders, 99 scientific logic of, 275-277 nutrition, 214 self-selection factors, 279-280 and preventive intervention design and sequencing and long-term follow-up, evaluation, 83-85 285-286 research recommendations, 10, 111 size reduction, 277-278 Psychiatric genetics, 114 of sustainability, 274 Public policy interventions, 98, 101, testing theories of change and 202-203, 323-325, 370. See also development, 271-272 Universal interventions variation in impact, 282 Puerto Ricans, 38 wait-list design, xxix, 167, 182, 194, 269, 281-282, 373 Reactive attachment disorder, 136 R Recommendations. See also Research recommendations Raising Healthy Children, 209-210 coordination across agencies, 5, 378-379 RAND Corporation, 22, 210 data collection and monitoring, 7-8, 55- Randomized prevention trials 56, 380 of adaptability, 273, 283-284 funding, 7, 372, 373, 376, 380 causal inferences from, 278-283 implementation, 7, 14, 239, 336, 373, community partnerships, 274-275, 380 304-305 mental health promotion, 14, 69 component evaluation, 283-284, 292 national leadership, 5, 378 defined, xxviii for researchers, 14, 69, 217, 262, 336 design elements, 266-268 state and community networked systems, developmental neuroscience and, 145- 6, 383 146, 148-149 workforce development, 8, 376 effectiveness trials, 268-269 Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders efficacy trials, 268 report, 2, 20-21 encouragement designs, xxv, 270-271, compared to current report, xiii-xiv, 28, 273, 329-331 31 ethical issues, 95, 269, 280-281, 282 defining prevention, xiv, 21, 59-60, 61- etiological model, 267, 271-272 62, 65 of extensibility, 273 recommendations, 21, 22, 151, 340 group-based approaches, 276-278 Regional Centers for the Application of growth in number of, 21, 28 Prevention Technologies, 356 head-to-head impact, 273 Research. See Prevention research of implementability, 273, 294 Research recommendations to improve interventions, 269-270 adolescents and young adults, 12, Internet-based programs and testing, 218-219 284-285 collaboration and joint funding, 10, for low-prevalence disorders, 283 374-375 meditational models, 86, 280-281, 291 combining interventions, 12, 219 NRH counterfactuals approach, 278-279 culturally appropriate adaptations, 11, opportunities for, 283-286 336 pilot study, 267-268 development of evaluations, 7, 14, 336, population effects, 270-271 373, 380 principal stratification approach, 280 developmental competencies, 12, 110

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557 INDEX economic analyses, 11, 260, 261 specific vs. general effects, 16, 87-88, effectiveness/efficacy of interventions, 10, 109-110 12, 218, 293 targeting interventions, 91-109 implementation and dissemination of variable, 82 interventions, 10-11, 218, 294, 335 Risky sexual behavior, 16, 30, 40, 90, 98, mass media and internet interventions, 99, 158, 159, 160, 168, 169, 181, 12, 218 187, 209, 281, 332, 344, 383-384, mental health promotion, 14, 69 390, 535 neuroscience linkages, 11, 148, 149, 374 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 365 risk and protective factors, 10, 111 Rochester Child Resilience Project, 77 screening linked to interventions, 10, Rutgers University, 342 238 Residential instability, 88, 106 S Resilience, xxviii, 25, 56, 75, 77, 82, 88, 92, 134, 144-145, 190, 201, 210, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Act of 1999, 216, 311. See also Coping skills 21, 22, 311 Retrospective studies, xxviii, 46, 54, 99-100 Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 301, Rett syndrome, 116-117, 120, 125-126 314, 347 Rhode Island, 350 Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program, Risk aversion, 53 309, 347, 354 Risk factors. See also Developmental Saving Lives, 205 framework; specific disorders and Schizophrenia risk factors age at onset, 120, 191 causal, 82 drift hypothesis, 108 community-related, 16, 88, 101, 106- efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 4, 109, 110, 221 30, 63 correlation with each other and with epidemiology, 42, 45 protective factors, 16, 29, 30, 86 genetic association, 115, 117, 120 cumulative effects, 16, 84, 86, 89 meta-analyses, 517 defining, xxviii, 81-82 neurodevelopmental factors, 127 developmental perspective, 16, 81-98 preventive interventions in prodromal disorder-specific, 91-98 stage, 95, 155, 206-208, 216, 225- genetic component, 52-53, 63, 92, 93, 226, 280-281 94, 95, 96, 106, 117-118, 144-146 risk factors, 91, 94-95, 108, 109-110, individual-level, 221-222 115, 117, 120, 123, 127, 225, 526 influence over time, 88-91 schizotaxia, 95 main effect models, xxvi, 88 screening for, 95, 225-226 meditators, xxvi, 88, 89-90 trial designs, 271, 280-281, 283 moderators, xxvi, 88, 89-90 School monitoring changes in exposure, 51-54, bonding to, 85, 108, 109, 210 56 disadvantaged schools, 107 in multiple contexts, 51, 81-82, 85-86, dropout, 104 109 factors affecting healthy development, for multiple disorders, 99-106, 107, 109 78-80 prevalence and incidence, 51-54 protective factors, 109 and preventive intervention design and risk factors in, 108-109, 110 evaluation, 83-85 screening in, 229-232, 236 rate trends, 53-54 School-based interventions research recommendations, 10, 111 behavioral, 109, 152, 159, 181-183, school-related, 16, 106-109 518-519 sociodemographic groups, 59

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558 INDEX classroom management, 158-159, 166 research recommendations, 10, 238 college-level, 201-202 in schools, 229-232, 236 combining family interventions with, targets, 226 158, 159, 165, 166, 185-187, 273, tools/instruments, 228, 232-233, 235, 312 238 curriculum “dosage” requirements, 308 training for, 235-236 for delinquency, 90-91 universal, 230-231 early childhood, 178-181 window of opportunity, 50 efficacy/effectiveness, 4, 90-91, 109, 152, Seattle Social Development Program, 153, 158-159 159, 209 elementary, middle, and secondary Selective interventions school, 158, 181-187 challenges, 207 group contingency, 109 component in multilevel interventions, mental health promotion, 77 168, 185, 186 meta-analyses, 517-519 cost-effectiveness, 259 multicomponent, 159, 170 defined, xxviii, 2, 61, 62, 69, 386 peer leaders, 198, 200 efficacy or effectiveness, 64, 153, 165, preschool, 152, 179-181 174, 183, 192, 193, 195, 207 sexual abuse prevention, 181 examples, 19, 165, 315-316 social and emotional learning, 152 implementation, 312, 315-316, 319 for substance use and abuse, 90-91, 109, infrastructure for, 340, 343, 347 159, 197-201, 517-518 personalized medicine equated with, 63 violence prevention, 152, 518-519 rationale for, 62 School Lunch Program, 177, 324 screening approaches, 9, 154, 221, 223, Screening for prevention. See also individual 309 targets for, 94-95 disorders and risk factors assessment vs. screening, 237 Self-determination, 68, 75, 209 community-level, 221, 222-223, 232, Self-esteem, xxvi, 67, 74, 76, 82, 90, 200, 239 302, 390 computerized, 227 Self-regulatory skills, 78, 80, 96, 100, 131, criteria, 222, 223-237 135, 137-138, 139, 141, 142, 146, cultural adaptations, 233, 238 166 defined, 221 Separation anxiety disorder, 43, 44, 93 for developmental difficulties, 95 Serotonin transporter gene, 117, 146 ethical issues, 207, 235 Sexual behavior. See Risky sexual behavior facilities or settings, 226, 227 Shared Youth Vision, 349 goals for, 223 Single-parent households, 53, 85, 103, 167, group-level, 222 179, 211, 524, 531 individual-level, 221-222, 226 Sleep-related breathing disorder, 212 intervention availability and, 225-226 Social and emotional learning, 134, 135, longitudinal implementation, 236-237 152, 184-185, 311-312, 315, 516, neuroscience applications, 142-143 517 objections to, 19, 143-144, 230, 233-234 Social competence, 66, 100, 114, 131, 135, parental involvement, 238 183, 200, 518 in preschool and day care, 231-232 Social inclusion, xxvi, 66, 67, 74 prevalence of disorders and, 223-225 Social phobia, 43, 44, 93, 153 in primary care setting, 161-162, 226, Social supports, 99, 106, 163, 524, 525 227-229, 232, 236 Society for Prevention Research, 23, 24, prodromal identification, 225-226 258, 293, 354, 359 reimbursement for, 227, 235-236 Society of Pediatric Psychology, 367 reliability of, 19 Sources of Strength, 332

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55 INDEX South Carolina, 167, 205 Strategic Prevention Frameworks, 347, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program 348, 354, 356, 372 for Women, Infants, and Children surveys, 40, 46, 48, 56, 57 (WIC), 161, 177, 255, 324 technical assistance centers, 346-347, Specific phobia, 43, 44, 93 356, 357 Spirituality for Kids, 210 timeline of prevention-related events, 22, Standards of evidence, 24, 353, 354, 355, 25 367, 368, 369, 371, 372-374, 380 training initiatives, 302, 361 STARS for Families, 256 n.16 Substance use and abuse. See also Alcohol State Children’s Health Insurance Program, abuse and dependence; Drug abuse 324 adversity pathways to, 106 Statistical analysis of trials age at onset, 50, 72 blocking, 277 brain development and, 129, 140 effect sizes, xxiv, 13, 146, 165, 174-175, college-level approaches, 201-202 183, 185, 195, 200, 205, 206, 210, community approaches, 202-206 218, 285, 319, 333 comorbidities, 47, 48 growth models, 288-289 cost and health burdens, 15, 17, 29 growth plus context, 290 cost-effectiveness of interventions, 256 intent-to-treat analyses, 268, 291 defined, xxviii, 30 latent transition analyses, 289 early use, 29 mediation analyses, 268, 289 efficacy/effectiveness of interventions, 2, missing or incomplete data, 290 4, 22-23, 95-97, 153, 158, 159, 169, multilevel modeling of contextual effects, 197-206, 256 290 genetic predisposition, 117, 120 postintervention modeling, 291 interagency programs, 22-23 Stigmatization issues, xv, 12, 29, 69, 143- mediators of, 90-91 144, 149, 207, 218, 226, 230, 233- prevalence, 43, 44 234, 237, 238, 320, 322, 331, 349, risk factors, 16, 88, 89, 96, 98, 99, 102, 370, 379, 383, 387, 392 104-105, 106, 107 Strengthening Families Program, 158, 159, and risky behaviors, 247 168, 169, 200, 203, 255 n.14 school-based approaches, 90-91, 109, Strong African American Families Program, 159, 181-183, 197-201, 517-518 169 sex differences, 54, 140 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Suicide Services Administration, 2, 27, 235 AIM approach, 23 Center for Mental Health Services, 25, costs, 17, 252 64, 346-347, 357, 361 effectiveness of interventions, 19, 109, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 159, 184, 253, 281, 283, 303 22, 300, 346-347, 353 n.13, 355, federal prevention program, 347, 348, 357, 361 349, 356 definition of mental disorders, 29 implementation of interventions, 303, National Registry of Evidence-Based 304, 332 Programs and Practices, 22, 25, 26, international prevention efforts, 392 353, 355 as outcome measure, 283 Office of Applied Studies, 40 prevention-related reports, 21, 23, 24, preventive services funding, 346-347, 25 348, 351, 355 risk factors, 99-100, 206, 214, 221 recommendations to, 7, 8, 57, 372, 380, screening, 19, 232-233, 234 381 state prevention programs, 349 research program and funding, 6, 64, surveillance, 347 355, 361, 372, 380 teenage rates, 55

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560 INDEX Surgeon General reports, 21, 22, 23 design, 183 Surveillance. See Epidemiology of MEB for eating disorders, 206 disorders; individual surveys in ecological framework, 73 Systematic Screening for Behavior efficacy or effectiveness, 64, 170, 179, Disorders, 230-231 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 189, 195, 203, 206, 218, 226, 253, 259, 311- 312, 333, 518 T examples, 19, 66, 95, 141, 161, 170 funding, 347, 350 Task Force on College Drinking, 203 implementation, 311-312, 315-316, 319- Teen Screen, 234 320, 333 Temperament, 93, 96, 99, 522, 523, 524, importance, 48 528 meta-analyses, 518 Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale, nonrandomized study designs, 288 228 promotion of mental health, 208, 212 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, rationale for, 61 177, 324 research funding, 344, 534 Tennessee, 163, 186 for schizophrenia, 95 Terminology, xiv, 28-30, 56 screening, 9, 154, 222, 226, 229, 230, Threat appraisal, 53, 106, 530 234, 369 Tic disorders, 138, 139, 140 substance use prevention, 18, 200, 203, Timeline Follow Back interview, 202 272, 289 Tobacco control, 18 training for, 221, 369, 370 Tools of the Mind, 142 trials, 207, 272, 273, 283, 288, 289, Tourette syndrome, 41, 138, 139 344 Training. See Workforce training University of Colorado at Boulder, 22, 309 Transdisciplinary Prevention Research University of Georgia, 342 Centers, 342, 343 University of Kentucky, 342 Translational research, xxix, 11, 149, 325, University of Southern California, 342 343, 363, 374, 375, 384 University of Washington, 368 Treatment of MEB, xiii, xiv, xxix, 1, 2, 16, U.S. Department of Education, 26, 229 19, 21, 30-31, 36, 37, 51 Institute of Education Sciences, 7, 24, Turner syndrome, 52 372, 380, 381 Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, 7, 347 n.10, 372 U prevention interventions, 22-23, 301, 347, 348, 355, 381 Underage drinking. See Alcohol abuse and recommendations for, 5, 7, 8, 55-56, dependence 239, 372, 373, 376, 379, 381 United Kingdom, 38, 239, 250 research funding, 338 National Institute for Health and technical assistance centers, 301, 357 Clinical Excellence, 188 timeline of prevention-related events, 22- Universal interventions, 50, 340, 343, 388 23, 24 anxiety prevention, 192-193 U.S. Department of Health and Human CDC recommendations, 185 Services. See also individual agencies component in multilevel interventions, and bureaus 165, 167, 185-186, 187 Office of Disease Prevention and Health current programs, 165, 167, 168, 182, Promotion, 56 184, 187, 198, 200 Office of the Assistant Secretary for defined, xxix, 2, 61, 66, 69, 386 Planning and Evaluation, 56, 381 depression prevention, 198

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56 INDEX recommendations for, 5, 7, 8, 55-56, costs, 164 239, 372, 373, 376, 379, 381 current efforts, 361-370 research funding, 308, 338 education providers, 369-370 SSHS Program, 347-348 health care professionals, 207, 364-366 surveys, 56 to implement and disseminate services, technical assistance centers, 357 317 timeline of prevention-related events, 22, law and judicial system, 370 23, 25 neuroscience, 363 U.S. Department of Justice nurses, 164, 368 Model Programs Guide, 353 overview since 1994, 359-361 Office of Juvenile Justice and physicians, 364-366 Delinquency Prevention, 7, 22-23, prevention researchers, 362 347, 348, 372, 381 for public awareness and public policy recommendations for, 5, 7, 8, 55-56, making, 370 239, 372, 373, 376, 379, 381 public health, 363 research funding, 22-23 recommendations, 8, 375-376 timeline of prevention-related events, 22- for screening, 235-236 23, 24 social workers, 366-369 U.S. Department of Labor, 349 substance abuse and mental health U.S. Public Health Service, 230 counselors, 368-369 Utah, 228 World Conference on the Promotion of Utilization of health services, 17, 249-250 Mental Health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioral Disorders, 23 World Federation for Mental Health, 23, 25 V World Health Organization, xxv, 223, 224, 247, 388 Velocardiofacial syndrome, 52 Vermont, 228 Violence. See also Child maltreatment Y in communities and schools, 106-109 costs of, 250 Young adults effectiveness of programs, 22, 68, 152, antisocial behavior, 97, 152, 158, 184 183, 185, 200, 211, 309, 317, 353 anxiety, 76, 84, 192, 193-194, 531 interagency programs, 22-23 bipolar disorder, 45 prevention-related events, 21, 22-23 brain development, 127-128 and risk of MEB disorders, 29, 87, 94, defined, 81 n.2 99, 102, 104, 107 depression, 76, 92, 525 television exposure to, 215 developmental tasks, 81 Virginia Longitudinal Study of Child factors affecting healthy development, 80 Maltreatment, 103 interventions, 155, 171-172, 176, 193- Vitamin D deficiency, 215-216 194, 201-202, 203, 208-209 mental health promotion, 212, 215 military service, 171-172 W opportunities for intervention, 390 prevalence of MEB disorders, 45 Washington State, 186, 228, 253, 268 research initiatives and needs, 12, 218- What Works Clearinghouse, 24, 353 219, 344, 345, 348, 386, 536, 537 Whites, 38, 100, 168, 169, 198, 200, 536 risk factors, 96-97, 171-172, 525, 527, Williams syndrome, 52 529, 531 Wisconsin, 204-205 schizophrenia, 94, 95, 191, 209, 527 Workforce training screening, 232 clinical psychologists, 367

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562 INDEX smoking, 321 Youth development interventions, 255 substance abuse, 96-97, 171, 192, 201- Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 202, 203, 208-209, 347, 517, 529 40, 48, 383 surveys, 41 Youth Speakers Bureau, 234