FIGURE 3-1 Mental health intervention spectrum.

FIGURE 3-1 Mental health intervention spectrum.

SOURCE: Adapted from Institute of Medicine (1994, p. 23).

be recognized as an important component of the mental health intervention spectrum, which can serve as a foundation for both prevention and treatment of disorders (see Figure 3-1).

For purposes of this report, the committee has adopted a definition of mental health promotion that is consistent with concepts described in prior reports in the United States (e.g., Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007a) and used in international contexts (e.g., World Health Organization, 2004; Jané-Llopis and Anderson, 2005):

Mental health promotion includes efforts to enhance individuals’ ability to achieve developmentally appropriate tasks (developmental competence) and a positive sense of self-esteem, mastery, well-being, and social inclusion and to strengthen their ability to cope with adversity.

Inclusion of promotion activities is an important conceptual shift for the field. For the past decade, various prevention researchers have argued for a synthesis of prevention and promotion approaches (Greenberg, Weissberg, et al., 2003; Catalano, Hawkins, et al., 2002; Cowen, 2000; Weissberg and Greenberg, 1998; Durlak and Wells, 1997). Greenberg and colleagues (2003) have maintained that “problem prevention programs are most beneficial when they are coordinated with explicit attempts to enhance [young people’s] competence, connections to others and contributions to



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