TABLE 4-1 Factors That Affect Healthy Development




School and Community

Infancy and Early Childhood

NRC and IOM (2000)


-Attention regulation

-Appropriate emotional inhibitions and expression

-Early mastery and intrinsic motivation

-Executive functioning, planning, and problem solving

-Secure attachment

NRC and IOM (2000)

Healthy physical environment

-Adequate prenatal and postnatal health care

-Adequate prenatal and postnatal nutrition

NRC and IOM (2000)

Availability of high-quality child care


-Support for early learning

-Access to supplemental services, such as feeding, screening for vision and hearing, support for working parents

-Stable secure attachment to child care provider

-Low ratio of caregivers to children

-Regulatory systems that support high quality of care

Nurturing relationships with caregiver including:

-Reliable support and discipline from caregiver


-Protection from harms and fears


-Opportunities to resolve conflict

-Support for development of new skills

-Reciprocal interactions

-Experience of being respected

-Stability and consistency in caregiver relationship

Communication and learning

-Functional language

-School attendance and appropriate conduct

Making friends and getting along with peers

-Initiating interactions and appropriate conduct

-Understanding of self and others’ emotions

Adequate birth weight

Socioeconomic resources for the family

-Adequate income

-Ability to provide adequate nutrition, child care, safe housing, health care

-Higher parental education

-Cognitive stimulation in the home

-Parental low economic stress

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