Middle Childhood

Masten and Coatsworth (1995)

-Learning to read and write a language

-Learning basic mathematics

-Attending and behaving appropriately at school

-Following rules for behavior at home, school, public places

-Getting along with peers in school

-Making friends with peers

Wyman (2003)

-Time in emotionally responsive interactions with children

-Consistent discipline

-Language-based rather than physically based discipline

-Extended family support

-Parental resources, including positive personal efficacy, adaptive coping, self-views high on potency and life satisfaction

Smith, Boutte, et al. (2004)

Features of school environment that are associated with positive development

-Positive teacher expectancies

-Perceived teacher support

-Effective classroom management

-Positive partnering between school and family

-Culturally relevant pedagogy

-School policies and practices to reduce bullying

-High academic standards, strong leadership, concrete strategies to promote achievement, assessment of goal achievement, and positive involvement of families

Wyman (2003)

-Empathy and acceptance of other children’s emotional expressiveness

-Preference for prosocial solutions to interpersonal problems

-Realistic control attributions

-Self-efficacy



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