and intrusive than parents of children without clinical anxiety (Hudson and Rapee, 2001; Muris and Merckelbach, 1998), and parental overcontrol and intrusiveness seem to reinforce child inhibition (Rapee, 2001). Attachment style may influence anxiety in children as well (e.g., Erikson, Sroufe, and Egeland, 1985; Sroufe, Egeland, and Kreutzer, 1990). One study identified an anxious-resistant attachment style in infancy as a predictor of anxiety disorders in young adulthood (Warren, Huston, et al., 1997).

Prevention programs have typically targeted children who are at high risk for anxiety due to parental anxiety disorders (Bienvenu and Ginsburgh, 2007), behavioral risk factors for anxiety disorders (e.g., behavioral inhibition; Rapee, Kennedy, et al., 2005), or environmental risk factors (e.g., witnessing community violence; Cooley, Boyd, and Grados, 2004). Prevention programs also have targeted prodromal youth (Dadds, Spence, et al., 1997) and asymptomatic youth (Barrett, Farrell, et al., 2006). Studies are still needed to clarify both the mechanisms by which a prevention program achieves its effects and models of anxiety disorder development (Kellam, Koretz, and Moscicki, 1999).


The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum are undergoing reexamination and revision (Tsuang and Faraone, 2002), but the current diagnostic measurements have sufficient reliability to permit a clear study of risk factors and the developmental course. The incidence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders accelerates dramatically during adolescence and young adulthood. Because risk factors have been identified from the prenatal period through young adulthood, opportunities for prevention span these life stages.

Family history can be an important predictor of schizophrenia, and there is strong evidence that genetic factors increase the risk for schizophrenia, with multiple genes operating and interacting in complex ways (Erlenmeyer-Kimling, Rock, et al., 2000; Gottesman, 1991; Owen, O’Donovan, and Harrison, 2005; Tsuang and Faraone, 1994). Having one affected parent conveys a lifetime risk 5 to 15 times that of the general population; having two parents with schizophrenia conveys a nearly 50 percent risk (Bromet and Fennig, 1999). Thus, youth who have an affected first-degree relative are an important potential target group for selective intervention. However, this strategy would not be sufficient, as 90 percent of cases of schizophrenia do not have a family history (Brown and Faraone, 2004; Faraone, Brown, et al., 2002).

An important identified risk factor for schizophrenia is obstetric complications, which convey twice the risk of that in the general population. These complications are sufficiently common that reducing them would

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