C
Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Thomas C. Katsouleas, Chair, is the dean of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University. Before moving to Duke in July 2007, he was the vice provost for information services and a professor of electrical engineering, University of Southern California. In 2005 and 2006, Dr. Katsouleas served as president of the Academic Senate at USC, during which time he focused on enhancing the university’s academic technology infrastructure. Dr. Katsouleas also served as associate dean for research and as associate dean for student affairs in the Viterbi School of Engineering at USC. He was the first chair of the faculty advisory committee for USC’s High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Center. In 2005 and 2006, he co-chaired the Senate-Provost Committee to Examine Information Services, which recommended restructuring USC’s information technology services into a federated model. Dr. Katsouleas’s research focuses on the applications of plasma physics to particle accelerators and high-power microwave sources. He leads a large multiinstitution effort (with Stanford and UCLA) to demonstrate that a plasma can be used to miniaturize a particle accelerator from kilometer to meter scales. His group also performs large-scale supercomputing simulations to track the complex motion of the billions of particles that make up these relativistic plasmas. Dr. Katsouleas received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1984. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He is associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. He served on NRC’s Committee on High-Energy-Density Plasma Physics Assessment.


Ricardo Alarcon is a professor of physics at Arizona State University. He did his undergraduate studies at the University of Chile and received his Ph.D. in 1985 from Ohio University. He did postdoctoral work at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign until 1989, when he joined Arizona State University as an assistant professor. His research covers experiments in electromagnetic nuclear physics and, more recently, in fundamental neutron science. He held visiting professor appointments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1995-1997 and 1999-2001 and served as project manager for the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer project at MIT-Bates from 1999 to 2002. He was a member of the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation Nuclear Science Advisory Committee from 2001 to 2005. In 2003, he was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society. He was a member of NRC’s Committee on Rare Isotope Science Assessment.



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C Biographies of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS Thomas C. Katsouleas, Chair, is the dean of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University. Before moving to Duke in July 2007, he was the vice provost for information services and a professor of electrical engineer- ing, University of Southern California. In 2005 and 2006, Dr. Katsouleas served as president of the Academic Senate at USC, during which time he focused on enhancing the university’s academic technology infrastructure. Dr. Katsouleas also served as associate dean for research and as associate dean for student affairs in the Viterbi School of Engineering at USC. He was the first chair of the faculty advisory committee for USC’s High Perfor- mance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Center. In 2005 and 2006, he co-chaired the Senate-Provost Committee to Examine Information Services, which recommended restructuring USC’s information technology services into a federated model. Dr. Katsouleas’s research focuses on the applications of plasma physics to particle accelerators and high-power microwave sources. He leads a large multiinstitution effort (with Stanford and UCLA) to demonstrate that a plasma can be used to miniaturize a particle accelerator from kilometer to meter scales. His group also performs large-scale supercomputing simulations to track the complex motion of the billions of par- ticles that make up these relativistic plasmas. Dr. Katsouleas received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1984. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He is associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. He served on NRC’s Committee on High-Energy-Density Plasma Physics Assessment. Ricardo Alarcon is a professor of physics at Arizona State University. He did his undergraduate studies at the University of Chile and received his Ph.D. in 1985 from Ohio University. He did postdoctoral work at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign until 1989, when he joined Arizona State University as an assistant professor. His research covers experiments in electromagnetic nuclear physics and, more recently, in fundamental neutron science. He held visiting professor appointments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1995-1997 and 1999-2001 and served as project manager for the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer project at MIT-Bates from 1999 to 2002. He was a member of the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation Nuclear Science Advisory Committee from 2001 to 2005. In 2003, he was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society. He was a member of NRC’s Committee on Rare Isotope Science Assessment. 

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 SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-POWER FREE-ELECTRON LASER TECHNOLOGY John Albertine, an independent consultant, received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics from Rose Polytechnic Institute and Johns Hopkins University, respectively. Before working for the Navy, Mr. Albertine was a senior staff physicist in the Space Division of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. From 1976 through 1997, he worked in the Navy’s High Energy Laser (HEL) Program Office, directing the Navy’s technology development for the last 15 years of that assignment. During that time, he led the development and test of the first megawatt- class HEL system in the free world. He retired from the civil service in 1997 and now consults for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Air Force, the Office of Naval Research, the Navy HEL Program Office, and Penn State in the field of directed energy. Mr. Albertine was a member of the Air Force Science Advisory Board and served as executive vice president and was a member of the board of directors of the Directed Energy Professional Society (DEPS), where he is a fellow. Ilan Ben-Zvi is a tenured senior scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Dr. Ben-Zvi serves as the associate chair for superconducting accelerator R&D and is the group leader for the electron cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in the Collider-Accelerator Department. He also holds an adjunct professorship in physics at Stony Brook. His current research interests are electron cooling of hadron beams, the generation of high-brightness electron beams, superconducting RF, energy recovery linacs, and high-power free-electron lasers through superconducting accelerator techniques. Dr. Ben-Zvi received his Ph.D. in physics from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, in 1970. He joined the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1989 and the Collider-Accelerator Department (joint appointment) in 2000. He served as the director of the Accelerator Test Facility, a user’s facility for beam physicists, from 1989 to 2004, building up the facility to serve as the premier DOE facility for advanced accelerator R&D. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He is the recipient of the 1999 IEEE Accelerator Science and Technology Award, the 2001 BNL Science and Technology Award, the 2007 Free-Electron Laser Prize, and the 2008 IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (IEEE/NPSS) Merit Award. Dr. Ben-Zvi has been active in international cooperative projects and has developed special relations with industry, including transfer of technology projects and collaborations on the development of novel accelerator components and software. He was a member of the editorial board of Physical Reiew Special Topics—Accelerators and Beams from its inauguration in 1998 until 2004. He is a member of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Panel on Advanced and Novel Accelerators. He has served on or chaired several advisory and program committees of beam physics conferences and workshops, including as a co-chair of the 1995 International FEL Conference, program chair of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference and the 2001 International FEL Conference, and chair of the 2004 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, on technical advisory panels, and reviews of accelerator and FEL projects. Since 2005, he has served as the chair of the IEEE/NPSS Particle Accelerator Science and Technology Committee. Sandra G. Biedron serves as the director and physicist of the Department of Defense Project Office of Argonne National Laboratory and is an associate director of the Argonne Accelerator Institute. Dr. Biedron is also a con- sultant on the FERMI project at Elettra, at Sincrotone Trieste. She is a physicist whose main research is in beam and laser source development and use. She is cross-trained in chemistry, biology, and electrical engineering. She was one of the team members who proved the SASE FEL concept in the visible to VUV wavelengths. Dr. Biedron was also the Argonne representative and participant on the Brookhaven/Argonne high-gain harmonic generation FEL experiment. She has been involved with electron-gun design and testing for over 12 years and was the first in the world to predict and measure the nonlinear harmonic growth on two types of high-gain free-electron lasers, an important component of many new FEL projects worldwide. For more than 8 years, she has managed and led the international workgroup FEL Exotica, which examines exotic beam and photon schemes, including novel undulator designs. Dr. Biedron is an active member of several professional societies. For the SPIE, she served as chair of the Scholarships and Grants Committee for 2 years and was on the Awards and Education Committees. For 2007-2009, she is a member of the executive committee for the SPIE’s Optics and Photonics Optical Engineering and Applications Conference, representing the x-ray, gamma-ray, and particle technologies track. Dr. Biedron is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). She served as the secretary and

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 APPENDIX C treasurer of the Chicago Section, Nuclear and Plasma Sciences/Magnetics Society and served on the Program Committee of the 2003 Particle Accelerator Conference jointly sponsored by the IEEE and the American Physical Society (APS). Since 2005, she has been the particle accelerator science and technology elected representative to the Nuclear Plasma and Sciences Society of the IEEE and is a member of the organizing and program committees for the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference. She has served on a variety of international program and organizing committees and has organized a number of conferences, workshops, and plenary sessions, including the upcoming FEL session at the 2008 Directed Energy Professional Society Meeting. Dr. Biedron has 40 archival papers in the area of FELs/coherent radiators, 14 as first author. Charles A. Brau is a professor of physics in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Brau received a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard in 1965. His research areas are atomic and molecular physics, lasers and light sources, and electron beams. His current research is in high-brightness electron beams, tabletop Cherenkov and Smith-Purcell FELs, and Compton backscatter x-ray sources and FELs. He was the program manager for the Free-Electron Laser program at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1976 to 1987. Following that he was on sabbatical leave at the Quantum Institute/University of California, Santa Barbara, and then a visit- ing scientist in Oxford University’s Department of Nuclear Physics. From 1988 to 1995, he was director of the Free-Electron Laser Center, Vanderbilt University. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society. He received the William Streifer Award for Scientific Achievement from the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society in 1995 and the Free-Electron Laser Prize of the 18th International Conference on Free-Electron Lasers in Rome in 1996. William B. Colson is a distinguished professor of physics in the Department of Physics, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. He received a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1977. His research interest is primarily the theory and simulation of free-electron lasers, but he also concentrates on the physics of complex radiating systems. Dr. Colson has been a visiting scientist at LURE, University of Paris, Orsay, France; at the Center for Energy Research (ENEA), Frascati, Italy; and at the Shanghai Institute of Optics, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. Dr. Colson has also been a member of the Medical Free-Electron Laser Program Review by the Life Sciences Research Office of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the Office of Naval Consortium’s Free-Electron Laser Program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), Newport News, Virginia. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, Physics and Beam Division, and a member of Sigma Xi. Dr. Colson received the 1989 Free-Electron Laser Prize from the IEEE Laser and Electro-Optic Society. He has been guest editor for the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics and is a coeditor of the Free-Electron Laser Handbook. He served on the NRC’s Committee on Free-Electron Lasers and Other Advanced Coherent Light Sources in 1994. Ronald C. Davidson has been a professor of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University since 1991 and was director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory from 1991 to 1996. Dr. Davidson received a B.Sc. from McMaster University in 1963 and a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1966. He was assistant research physicist at the University of California at Berkeley from 1966 to 1968, an assistant professor of physics at the University of Maryland from 1968 to 1971, an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellow for 1970-1972, an associate professor of physics for 1971-1973, a professor of physics at the University of Maryland for 1973-1978, and professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for 1978-1991. Dr. Davidson has made numerous fundamental theoretical contributions to several areas of pure and applied plasma physics, including nonneutral plasmas, nonlinear effects and anomalous transport, kinetic equilibrium and stability properties, intense charged-particle-beam propaga- tion in high-energy accelerators, and coherent radiation generation by relativistic electrons. He is the author of more than 300 journal articles and books, including four advanced research monographs: “Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory” (Academic Press, 1972), “Theory of Nonneutral Plasmas” (W.A. Benjamin, 1974), “Physics of Nonneutral Plasmas” (Addison-Wesley, 1990), and “Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams in High Energy Accelerators,” with Hong Qin (World Scientific, 2001). From 1976 to 1978, he served as the assistant director for the Applied Plasma Physics Office of Fusion Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy. Dr. Davidson also served as director of the MIT Plasma Fusion Center for the decade 1978-1988, as the first chair of the DOE

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 SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-POWER FREE-ELECTRON LASER TECHNOLOGY Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC), 1982-1986, as chair of the American Physical Society’s Division of Plasma Physics in 1983 and 1984 and its Division of Physics of Beams in 2001 and 2002, and has served on numerous national and international committees on plasma physics and fusion research. Dr. Davidson is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of Sigma Xi. He is also a recipient of the Department of Energy’s Distinguished Associate Award and the Fusion Power Associates Leadership Award, both in 1986, and recipient of the Kaul Foundation’s Award for Excellence in 1993 and the IEEE Particle Accelerator Science and Technology Award in 2005. VADM Paul G. Gaffney II, U.S. Navy (retired), became the seventh president of Monmouth University in July 2003. From 2000 to 2003, President Gaffney was president of the National Defense University. Before that, he was the Chief of Naval Research, with responsibility for science and technology investment. He was appointed as a commissioner to the statutory U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and served during its full tenure from 2001 to 2004. His naval career spanned more than three decades, including duty at sea, overseas, and ashore in executive and command positions. While a military officer, his career focused on oceanography, research administration, and education. President Gaffney is a 1968 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy. Upon graduation, he was selected for immediate graduate education and received a master’s degree in ocean engineering from Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. He completed a year as a student and advanced research fellow at the Naval War College, graduating with highest distinction. He completed an M.B.A. at Jacksonville University. The University of South Carolina, Jacksonville University, and Catholic University have awarded him honorary doctorates. He also has been recognized with a number of military decorations: the Naval War College’s J. William Middendorf Prize for Strategic Research, the Outstanding Public Service Award from the Virginia Research and Technology Con- sortium, and the Potomac Institute’s Navigator Award. He is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society, has served on several boards of higher education, was a member of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council during 2002-2004, and is currently vice chair of the statutory Ocean Research/Resources Advisory Panel. He chaired the Governor’s Commission to Protect and Enhance New Jersey’s Military Bases, is a director of Diamond Offshore Drilling, Inc., and he serves on the Meridian Health board of trustees. Lia Merminga is head of the Accelerator Division at TRIUMF, Canada’s National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics. Dr. Merminga received her B.S. in physics from the University of Athens, Greece, in 1983 and then attended the University of Michigan, where she received her Ph.D. in physics in 1989. She worked at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from 1989 to 1992 before joining the Accelerator Division at Jefferson Lab, first as a staff scientist and later as the director of the Center for Advanced Studies of Accelerators. Her research interests include advanced accelerator systems and nonlinear dynamics, with a recent focus on the design and development of energy recovery radio-frequency linear accelerators and their applications to high-power free- electron lasers, synchrotron radiation sources, and electron-ion colliders for nuclear and particle physics. In 2005, she co-chaired the first international workshop on energy recovery linacs. She has taught courses at the U.S. Particle Accelerator School and is currently serving on several machine advisory committees as well as on the editorial board of Physical Reiew Special Topics—Accelerators and Beams. Dr. Merminga is a fellow of the American Physical Society. She also was a member of the NRC’s Committee on Plasma 2010: An Assessment of and Outlook for Plasma and Fusion Science. Joel D. Miller is the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) program manager and a member of the principal pro- fessional staff of the Air Defense Systems Department at Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). Dr. Miller’s Ph.D. from the University of Michigan is in nuclear engineering. He has been with the APL since 2000 and is currently in the Area Defense Program Office of the Air Defense Systems Department. Dr. Miller has experience in research and development, technical project leadership, and program management, including an extensive background in complex physics experiments and engineering test and evaluation (T&E). As Aegis BMD program manager, he manages all APL activities in support of Aegis BMD development and deployment, including technical direction agent (TDA) activities in support of the Standard Missile-3 development program. He planned major T&E program efforts in theater ballistic missile defense. He directed the successful Standard

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 APPENDIX C Missile-2 Block IVA live fire T&E ground test lethality program. Dr. Miller was technical lead for operation of the nuclear weapons effects simulator facility. He managed laser technology for the Navy High-Energy Laser program and planned and conducted charged particle beam and directed energy weapons laboratory experiments. From 1995 to 2000, Dr. Miller worked with the Navy Standard Missile and Theater BMD Program Offices and from 1989 to 1995 with the Electronics Hardening and Directed Energy Technology Branches in the Physics and Technology Division of the Naval Surface Weapons Center’s White Oak Laboratory. Brian E. Newnam retired from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2002 and is currently affiliated with the LANL FEL project as a visiting scientist. Previously, Dr. Newnam served as deputy leader of LANL’s Super- conductivity Technology Center. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1972, where he studied high-power, laser-induced damage and self-focusing in dielectric films, solids, and inorganic liquids. During the early years (1979-1984) of the Los Alamos FEL program for national defense (SDI), Dr. Newnam was responsible for the laser and optical aspects of the FEL amplifier and oscillator experi- ments. Thereafter, he led a major effort to extend FELs into the extreme ultraviolet for both research applications and industrial photolithography. He also demonstrated the ability of infrared FELs to destroy the Freon pollutants responsible for the atmospheric ozone hole and designed and tested the laser damage resistance of resonator mirrors. At LANL, Dr. Newnam has contributed to DOE external independent reviews of the OMEGA Extended Perfor- mance addition to the OMEGA Laser Facility (University of Rochester) and Linear Coherent Laser Source (SLAC) large-scale DOE projects. He has contributed to the fields of laser damage to optical materials, FEL development and experimentation, FEL applications in science and industry, thin-film and XUV reflector design, laser physics, and thermal radiation properties of spacecraft coatings with many technical publications and presentations. He holds three patents on optical components. He organized and co-chaired the 1991 International FEL Conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dr. Newnam is a fellow of the Optical Society of America, and the SPIE awarded him its 1991 Rudolf Kingslake Medal and Prize for the most noteworthy paper in optical engineering. Patrick O’Shea is professor and chairman of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Maryland’s A. James Clark School of Engineering, with additional appointments in the Department of Physics and the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics. He received his B.Sc. degree in physics from the University College Cork, Ireland, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Maryland. He has worked at LANL, where he was chief accelerator physicist on the Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket (BEAR) project, which tested a linear accelerator in space, and the project leader for the APEX Free- Electron Laser Project, which was the first photoinjector and linear-accelerator-driven ultraviolet FEL. He also led the commissioning of the 300 MeV photoinjector linac at the Duke University Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. He has served as director of the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP), at Maryland. He played a leading role in founding the Maryland Nano Center and the Maryland Center for Applied Electro- magnetics. His experimental and theoretical research is concentrated in the areas of applied electromagnetics and charged particle beam physics and technology. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a member of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Donald Prosnitz joined the RAND Corporation in September 2007 as a senior principal researcher. Dr. Prosnitz’s studies at RAND concentrate on the use of technology to solve national and homeland security issues. Dr. Prosnitz was previously the deputy associate director of programs for nonproliferation, homeland and international security at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and was responsible for overseeing all of the directorate’s technical programs. He received his B.S. from Yale University and his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He then spent 2 years as an assistant professor in the Engineering and Applied Science Department at Yale before joining LLNL as an experimental laser physicist. Over the next three decades, he con- ducted research on lasers, particle accelerators, high-power microwaves, free-electron lasers, and remote sensing and managed the design, construction, and operation of numerous research facilities. In 1990, he was awarded the U.S. Particle Accelerator Award for Achievement in Accelerator Physics and Technology. In 1999, Dr. Prosnitz was

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 SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-POWER FREE-ELECTRON LASER TECHNOLOGY named the first Chief Science and Technology Advisor for the Department of Justice (DOJ) by Attorney General Janet Reno. In this newly created position, he was responsible for coordinating technology policy among the DOJ’s component agencies and with state and local law enforcement entities on science and technology projects and programs. In 2002, he was named a fellow of the American Physical Society. He is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. Elihu Zimet is a distinguished research professor of the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University. Dr. Zimet’s background includes naval science and technology, including kinetic and nonkinetic effects, and low-observable and counter-low-observable technologies. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1969. From 1969 to 1971, he was a lecturer at Yale University, where he conducted research in the field of fluid mechanics. Dr. Zimet started his government career at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in 1971, working on gas dynamic and chemical high-energy lasers, and after the laboratory became part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, he became branch head of the Detonation Physics Branch. From 1991 to 2002, as a member of the Senior Executive Service (SES), he headed, first, the Special Programs, and subsequently, the Expeditionary Warfare Science and Technology Departments at the Office of Naval Research. Currently, he is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board (NSB) and its Committee on the “1,000 Ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network and, formerly, a member of the NSB’s Committee on the Role of Naval Forces in the Global War on Terror. He served for many years on NATO’s AGAARD and RTO technology panels. He was twice awarded the Meritorious Presidential Rank Award in the SES and has also been awarded the Distinguished Civilian Civil Service Award. NRC STAFF Donald C. Shapero received a B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiv- ing the Ph.D., Dr. Shapero became a Thomas J. Watson postdoctoral fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American University, later moving to Catholic University and then joining the staff of the National Research Council in 1975. Dr. Shapero took a leave of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the International Astronomical Union and a fellow of both the APS and the AAAS. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science. Cy L. Butner is a senior program officer with the NRC’s Laboratory Assessments Board. Shortly after joining the NRC in 1997, he moved from the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board to the Army Research Labora- tory Technical Assessment Board, which has since expanded to become the Laboratory Assessments Board. His primary duties have involved supporting the Army Research Laboratory and the National Institute of Standards and Technology peer assessment programs. He also has participated in a number of ad hoc studies, covering a range of scientific topics. Before joining the NRC, Mr. Butner served as an independent consultant to the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board for 2 years, supporting a peer review process for Air Force Office of Scientific Research proposals and several reports on topics related to space and aeronautics programs. From 1985 until 1994, Mr. Butner worked with two aerospace consulting firms, where he supported space and aeronautics technology development programs at NASA Headquarters. Before that, he worked for RCA as a satellite solar array engineer, for NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center as a science co-op student and a materials engineer, and for the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Agency as a statistician. Mr. Butner has B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics from the American University and a B.S. degree in mathematics from the University of New Mexico.

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 APPENDIX C Robert L. Riemer joined the staff of the Board on Physics and Astronomy in January 1985. Dr. Riemer served as study director for the 1991 and 2000 decadal surveys of astronomy and astrophysics and with many other NRC committees, including committees on physics, aeronautics, space, mathematics, and interdisciplinary research. He received a B.S. with honors in physics and astrophysics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Ph.D. with honors in physics from the University of Kansas-Lawrence for research in experimental high-energy physics. Caryn Joy Knutsen is currently a program associate with the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. She came to the BPA in 2006 as a senior program assistant after completing a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs in 2006. While attending the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs she also earned two certificates in industrial mathematics (levels 1 and 2). At the BPA, she operates in various administra- tive and supporting roles for multiple committees, and in January 2008 she received the “Rookie” award from the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. She is a member of the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.