C
Selected Literature on Quantities and Impacts of Marine Debris

The following tables are a review of peer-reviewed published literature only. Only those studies involving numerical data (versus graphical) were used herein; as such, this represents a selected set of data. When replicate data were presented (e.g., by site, by time), they were summarized by the topmost treatment variable to derive means and ranges. Only those studies reporting debris impact (Tables IV and V) with sample size greater than 20 for a given species were included herein.



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C Selected Literature on Quantities and Impacts of Marine Debris The following tables are a review of peer­reviewed published litera­ ture only. Only those studies involving numerical data (versus graphical) were used herein; as such, this represents a selected set of data. When replicate data were presented (e.g., by site, by time), they were summa­ rized by the topmost treatment variable to derive means and ranges. Only those studies reporting debris impact (Tables IV and V) with sample size greater than 20 for a given species were included herein. 

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 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE I Prevalence of Marine Debris in Coastal Environments Location Study Period Number of Items (range) items • km–1 Per Unit Length of Coastline NP, Alaska 1972–1974, 1983 390 (193–589) WP, Indonesia 1985, 1995 6,452 (100–29,000) NA, Gulf of Maine 1987 MED, Israel 1988–1989 7,354 (5,834–9,176) MED, N/E 1988–1989 32,420 (6,000–231,000) MED, Israel 1990–1991 10,247 (5,120–27,774) CAR, Panama 1990–1991 4 (2–2) SP, Ducie Atoll 1991 395 CAR, S–E 1991–1992 (1,900–11,200) IND, Australia 1991–2000 CAR, Curaçao 1992–1993 48,500 (8,220–88,840) SA, Scotia Arc Isl. 1993–1997 146 (0–285) IO, South Africa 1994–1995 37,400 (19,600–72,500) SA, Brazil 1995 7,400 (300–60700) SP, N Australia, GBR 1996 625 (62–1,715) IO, N Australia 1996–1997 92 (52 – 132) NA, Scotland 1996–1998 53 (5–235) NA, Wales 1998–2000 2,274 (170–16,030) SA, Brazil 2001–2004 9 (6–12) IO, Gulf of Oman 2002 1,790 (430–6,010) NA + SA 2002 1,080 (0–8,800) MED, Balearic Island 2005 34,640 (30,500–39,750) items • km–2 Per Unit Area of Shore SP, Pitcairn Isl. 1991–1993 230,000 (120,000–350,000) NP, Indonesia 1994 27,1000,000 (700,000–53,400,000) SP, E Australia 1994 44,800 (29,400–59,100) Red Sea, Jordan 1994–1995 4,026,100 (2,436,800–6,171,000) SP, E Australia 2000 133,200 (34,000–298,000) NP, Sea of Japan 2000 (207,000–3,410,000) SA, Argentina 2000 62,462 (9,462–150,900) NP, Mexico 2000 1,525,000 (1,238,800–1,829,700) SA, Brazil 2001 137,580 (33,700–233,300) NA, Scotland 2001–2003 989,189 (160,000–3,060,000) NOTE: Mean values, when replicate sampling is carried out, are given with range in parentheses. Studies were separated according to sampling methods: per unit shoreline (km–1) or unit area (km–2). Region Legend: NA = North Atlantic; SA = South Atlantic, NP = North Pacific; WP = Western Pacific; SP = South Pacific; IO = Indian; CAR = Caribbean; MED = Mediterranean.

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 APPENDIX C Weight (range) Source g • km–1 219,000 (122,000–255,000) Merrell, 1984 Willoughby et al., 1997 31,200 (5,500–68,200) Podolsky, 1989 Golik and Gertner, 1992 871,000 (51,000–3,137,000) Gabrielides et al., 1991 Bowman et al., 1998 70 (20–140) Garrity and Levings, 1993 Benton, 1991 (8,200–154,000) Corbin and Singh, 1993 8,000 (1,870–15,000) Edyvane et al., 2004 3,832,000 (1,874,000–5,790,000) Debrot et al., 1999 Convey et al., 2002 101,000 (42,800–164,000) Madzena and Lasiak, 1997 240,000 (4,000–1,199,000) Wetzel et al., 2004 Haynes, 1997 Whiting, 1998 Velander and Mocogni, 1999 Williams et al., 2003 Santos et al., 2005 27,000 (7,470–75,400) Claereboudt, 2004 Barnes and Milner, 2005 31,400 (25,300–41,000) Martinez­Ribes et al., 2007 g • km–2 Benton, 1991 Uneputty and Evans, 1997 Frost and Cullen, 1997 Abu­Hilal and Al­Najjar, 2004 Cunningham and Wilson, 2003 (13,440,000–21,440,000) Kusui and Noda, 2003 Acha et al., 2003 Silva­Iñiguez and Fischer, 2003 Oigman­Pszczol and Creed, 2007 Storrier et al., 2007

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 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE II Prevalence of Marine Debris in Pelagic Environments Location Study Period Sampling Technique NP, Sargasso 1971 tow, 330 µm NP 1972 tow, 150 µm NA 1972 tow, 947 µm NA, E USA 1973–1975 tow, 947 µm NP, Alaska 1974–1975 tow, 363 µm SA, S Africa 1977–1978 tow, 900 µm SA, Cape Basin 1979 tow, 320 µm NP 1985 tow, 330 µm NA, Canada 1990 tow, 308 µm NP, Subtropical 1999 tow, 333 µm NP, Japan 2000–2001 tow, 330 µm NP, Central 1972 visual, ship MED, SW Malta 1979 visual (>15 cm), ship NP 1985 visual (>2 cm), ship MED, Eastern 1986 visual (>50 cm), ship NA, Gulf of Mexico 1988–1989 visual, aerial NA, Canada 1990 visual, ship NA, Gulf of Mexico 1992–1994 visual, aerial NP, Japan 2000 visual (>5 cm), ship MED, Liguria 1997–2000 visual SP, Chile 2002 visual NP, SCZ 2005 visual, aerial NOTE: Mean values, when replicate sampling was carried out, are given with range in parentheses. Studies were separated according to sampling methods: visual surveys or net sampling. Region Legend: NA = North Atlantic; SA = South Atlantic, NP = North Pacific; SP = South Pacific; MED = Mediterranean.

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 APPENDIX C Number of Items Weight (range) (range) (km–2) (g • km–2) Source 3,537 (47–12,080) 287 (0.61–770) Carpenter and Smith, 1972 (0–34,000) 300 (0–3,500) Wong et al., 1974 2,842 (61–5,466) 70 (10–78) Colton et al., 1974 44 (40–80) van Dolah et al., 1980 111 Shaw, 1977 3,639 (0–445,860) 42 (0–10,920) Ryan, 1988 1,874 (0–3,600) Morris, 1980a 33,183 (80–96,100) 420 (3–1,210) Day and Shaw, 1987 23,468 (0–108,800) 3.5 (0–23) Dufault and Whitehead, 1994 332,556 5,114 Moore et al., 2001 174,355 (0–3,520,000) 3,600 (0–153,000) Yamashita and Tanimura, 2007 4.2 Venrick et al., 1973 2,000 Morris, 1980b 1.0 (0.2–1.8) Day and Shaw, 1987 12,000 McCoy, 1988 31,500 (7,700–77,200) Lecke­Mitchell and Mullin, 1992 25 (0–112) Dufault and Whitehead, 1994 1.2 (0.6–2.4) Lecke­Mitchell and Mullin, 1992 0.4 (0.1–0.7) Shiomoto and Kameda, 2005 8.8 (3.4–14.2) Aliani et al., 2003 11 (0–54) Thiel et al., 2003 209 (93–291) Pichel et al., 2007

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0 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE III Prevalence of Marine Debris in Benthic Environments Study Sampling Depth Number of Items (range) (km–2) Location Period Technique (m) NA, Bay of Biscay 1992–1993 t/55 mm 0–100 204 (26–494) NP, MED 1992–1998 t/10, 20 mm 373 (72–1,935) MED, Eastern 1993 t/10 mm 2,330 (0–8,504) MED, NW 1994 t/10–100 mm <500 1,935 (35–33,237) NP, Indonesia 1994–1995 seine 320,000 (50,000–690,000) MED, FRA 1994–1995 t/10 mm 100–1,630 (23–7,700) NP, NCL 1994–1995 0–10 363,428 (90,000–660,000) NP, USA–AK 1994–1996 t/37 mm 38 (34–37) NP, KOR 1996, 2005 t/60–65 mm 58 (0–256) MED, GRC 1997–1998 t/150 mm 40–360 165 (89–240) MED, Eastern 2000–2003 t/150 mm 15–320 180 (72–437) NP, USA–NWHI 1999 snorkel <10 31 (3–62) NP, USA–NWHI 2000–2001 snorkel <10 67 (16–165) NA, USA–FL 2001 scuba 1–7 11,825 (9,844–28,750) SA, BRA 2001 snorkel subtidal 29,000 MED, GRC 2003 scuba 0–25 14,900 (0–251,300) NA, USA 2004–2005 scuba 16–20 3,975 (400–9,700) NOTE: Sampling methods include trawl (t) of various mesh sizes and visual surveys using snorkeler or scuba divers. Materials Legend: f = fishing gear; m = metal; n = nets; p = plastics; r = rubber. Region Legend: NA = North Atlantic; SA = South Atlantic, NP = North Pacific; MED = Mediterranean.

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 APPENDIX C Weight (range) Debris (g • km–2) Types Source p Galgani et al., 1995a p Galgani et al., 2000 Galil et al., 1995 p Galgani et al., 1995b Uneputty and Evans, 1997 0.5 p Galgani et al., 1996 133,285 (0–739,000) m, p Nagelkerken et al., 2001 m, p Hess et al., 1999 f Lee et al., 2006 m, p Stefatos et al., 1999 18,000 (5,000–47,000) f, m, p Koutsodendris et al., 2008 n Donohue et al., 2001 n Boland and Donohue, 2003 f Chiappone et al., 2004 p Oigman­Pszczol and Creed, 2007 m, p, r Katsanevakis and Katsarou, 2004 f Bauer et al., 2008

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 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE IV Marine Debris Ingestion Common Name Species Region Chelonia mydas Green Turtle NA, USA Chelonia mydas Green Turtle NA, Gulf of Mexico Chelonia mydas Green Turtle SA, S Brazil Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill Turtle CAR, Costa Rica Dermochelys coriacea Leatherback Turtle NA, Peru Carreta caretta Loggerhead Turtle NA, Gulf of Mexico Carreta caretta Loggerhead Turtle MED, Central Carreta carreta Loggerhead Turtle NA, USA–Florida Carreta carreta Loggerhead Turtle NA, NE Spain Diomedea chrysostoma Grey­Headed Albatross SA, Southern Ocean Diomedea exulans Wandering Albatross SA, Southern Ocean Diomedea immutabilis Laysan Albatross NP, INWR Diomedea immutabilis Laysan Albatross NP, Midway Phoebetria fusca Sooty Albatross SA, Southern Ocean Thalassarche chlororhynchos Yellow­Nosed Albatross SA, Southern Ocean Macronectes giganteus Giant Petrel SA, Argentina Macronectes giganteus Giant Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Macronectes halli Northern Giant Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Fulmarus glacialis Northern Fulmar ARC, Canada Daption capense Cape Petrel SP, Antarctic Fulmarus glacialis Northern Fulmar NA, E USA Fulmarus glacialis Northern Fulmar NA, North Sea Fulmarus glacialoides Southern Fulmar SP, Antarctic Pagodroma nivea Snow Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Pagodroma nivea Snow Petrel SP, Antarctic Thalassoica antartica Antarctic Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Halobaena caerulea Blue Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Pachyptila belcheri Thin­Billed Prion SA, Southern Ocean Pachyptila desolata Antarctic Prion SA, Southern Ocean Pachyptila salvini Salvin’s Prion SA, Southern Ocean Pachyptila vittata Broad­Billed Prion SA, Gough Island Pachyptila vittata Broad­Billed Prion SA, Southern Ocean Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer’s Petrel Tropical Pacific Procellaria aequinoctialis White­Chinned Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Calonectris diomedea Cory’s Shearwater NA, E USA Puffinus gravis Great Shearwater NA, E USA Puffinus gravis Great Shearwater SA, Southern Ocean

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 APPENDIX C Study Prevalence Debris Period Sampling (N) (%) Type Source 1988 dead (43) 56 m, r, u Bjorndal et al., 1994 1995–1999 capture (142) 7 b, u Seminoff et al., 2002 1997–1998 dead (38) 61 b, c, r Bugoni et al., 2001 1970–1972 dead (29) 14 Carr and Stancyk, 1975 1980 dead (140) 13 u Fritt, 1982 1986–1988 dead (82) 51 b Plotkin et al., 1993 1986 bycatch (99) 8 u Gramentz, 1988 1997 capture (241) 15 u Witherington, 2002 NA bycatch (54) 80 f, n, u Tomás et al., 2002 1975–1985 capture + dead (170) 0.6 r, t Ryan, 1987 1975–1985 capture + dead (156) 5 r, t Ryan, 1987 1966 dead (100) 76 b, p Kenyon and Kridler, 1969 1982–1983 capture + dead (50) 90 p Fry et al., 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (73) 1 r, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (87) 2 r, t Ryan, 1987 2002 capture (73) 73 p, r Copello and Quintana, 2003 1979–1985 capture + dead (123) 7 r, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (42) 7 r, t Ryan, 1987 2002 bycatch (42) 36 u Mallory et al., 2006 1984–1987 capture (30) 33 van Franeker, 1985a 1975–1989 capture (44) 86 Moser and Lee, 1992 1982–1984 dead (65) 92 van Franeker, 1985b 1984–1987 capture (27) 7 van Franeker and Bell, 1985 1979–1985 capture + dead (22) 5 r, t Ryan, 1987 1984–1987 capture (27) 4 van Franeker and Bell, 1985 1975–1985 capture + dead (30) 7 r, t Ryan, 1987 1975–1985 capture + dead (74) 92 p, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (32) 69 p, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (88) 59 p, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (31) 52 p, t Ryan, 1987 1983 capture + dead (31) 39 p Furness, 1985a 1979–1985 capture + dead (137) 30 p, r, t Ryan, 1987 1984–1991 capture (39) 0 p Spear et al., 1995 1979–1985 capture + dead (201) 57 p, r, t Ryan, 1987 1975–1989 capture (147) 25 Moser and Lee, 1992 1975–1989 capture (55) 64 Moser and Lee, 1992 1979–1985 capture + dead (50) 90 p, t Ryan, 1987 continued

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 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE IV Continued Common Name Species Region Puffinus griseus Sooty Shearwater SA, Southern Ocean Puffinus griseus Sooty Shearwater Tropical Pacific Puffinus griseus Sooty Shearwater NP, US and Canada Puffinus pacificus Wedge­Tailed Shearwater NP, Midway Puffinus pacificus Wedge­Tailed Shearwater Tropical Pacific Puffinus tenuirostris Short­Tailed Shearwater NP, Bering Sea Puffinus therminieri Audubon Shearwater NA, E USA Pterodroma brevirostris Kerguelen Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Pterodroma cookii Cook’s Petrel SP, New Zealand Pterodroma externa Juan Fernandez Petrel Tropical Pacific Pterodroma hasitata Black­Capped Petrel NA, E USA Pterodroma heraldica Herald Petrel SP, Pitcairn Island Pterodroma leucoptera White­Winged Petrel Tropical Pacific Pterodroma longisrostris Stejneger’s Petrel Tropical Pacific Pterodroma neglecta Kermadec Petrel SP, Pitcairn Island Pterodroma nigripennis Black­Winged Petrel Tropical Pacific Pterodroma rostrata Tahiti Petrel Tropical Pacific Pterodroma ultima Murphy’s Petrel SP, Pitcairn Island Hydrobates pelagicus Storm Petrel NA, Scotland Oceanodroma furcata Fork­Tailed Storm Petrel NP, Alaska Oceanodroma leucoroha Leach’s Storm Petrel Tropical Pacific Oceanodroma leucoroha Leach’s Storm Petrel NP, Alaska Oceanodroma oceanicus Wilson’s Storm Petrel NA, E USA Oceanodroma tethys Wedge­Rumped Storm Petrel Tropical Pacific Pelagodroma marina White­Faced Storm Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Pelecanoides urinatrix Common Diving Petrel SA, Southern Ocean Aethia crustatella Crested Auklet NP, Alaska Aethia psittacula Parakeet Auklet NP, Alaska Aethia pygmaea Whiskered Auklet NP, Alaska Ptychoramphus aleuticus Cassin’s Auklet NP, Alaska Brachyramphus marmoratus Marbled Murrelet NP, Alaska Synthliboramphus antiquus Ancient Murrelet NP, Alaska Cepphus columba Pigeon Guillemot NP, Alaska Uria aalge Common Guillemot NP, Alaska Uria lomvia Thick­Billed Guillemot NP, Alaska

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 APPENDIX C Study Prevalence Debris Period Sampling (N) (%) Type Source 1979–1985 capture + dead (63) 51 p, r, t Ryan, 1987 1984–1991 capture (36) 75 p, t Spear et al., 1995 1988–1990 by–catch (20) 75 Blight and Burger, 1997 1982–1983 capture (20) 60 p Fry et al., 1987 1984–1991 capture (85) 20 p, t Spear et al., 1995 1997–2001 capture (330) 84 p, t Vlietstra and Parga, 2002 1975–1989 capture (119) 5 Moser and Lee, 1992 1979–1985 capture + dead (63) 24 p, r, t Ryan, 1987 1972–1977 capture + dead (55) 38 t Imber, 1996 1984–1991 capture (183) 0.6 t Spear et al., 1995 1975–1989 capture (57) 2 Moser and Lee, 1992 1991 capture + dead (29) 0 Imber et al., 1995 1984–1991 capture (110) 12 p Spear et al., 1995 1984–1991 capture (46) 74 p, t Spear et al., 1995 1991 capture + dead (27) 26 Imber et al., 1995 1984–1991 capture (66) 5 p Spear et al., 1995 1984–1991 capture (121) 0.8 p Spear et al., 1995 1991 capture + dead (37) 43 Imber et al., 1995 1983 capture (21) 0 Furness, 1985b 1988–1990 capture (21 86 p, t Robards et al., 1995 1984–1991 capture (354) 20 p, t Spear et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (64) 48 p, t Robards et al., 1995 1975–1989 capture (133) 38 Moser and Lee, 1992 1984–1991 capture (296) 0.3 p Spear et al., 1995 1979–1985 capture + dead (24) 88 p, t Ryan, 1987 1979–1985 capture + dead (53) 2 r, t Ryan, 1987 1988–1990 capture (40) 3 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (208) 94 p, t Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (22) 0 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (35) 11 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (96) 0 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (68) 0 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (43) 2.3 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (134) 0.8 Robards et al., 1995 1988–1990 capture (92) 0 Robards et al., 1995 continued

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 TACKLING MARINE DEBRIS IN THE ST CENTURY TABLE V Entanglement Rates among Marine Mammals Common Name Species Name Region Study Period Arctocephalus gazella Antarctic fur seals SA, Bouetoya 1996–2002 Arctocephalus gazella Antarctic fur seals SA, Bird Island 1988–1989 Arctocephalus gazella Antarctic fur seals SI, Marion Island 1991–1996 Arctocephalus pusillus Australian fur seal SP, Tasmania 1989–1993 Arctocephalus pusillus Cape fur seals SA, SW Africa 1977–1979 Arctocephalus forsteri New Zealand fur seals SP, New Zealand 1995–2005 Arctocephalus forsteri New Zealand fur seals SP, New Zealand 1989–2002 Phoca vitulina Harbor seals NP, USA 1984–1986 Monachus schauinlandi Hawaiian monk seals NP, NWHI 1982–1998 Monachus schauinlandi Monk seals NP, subtropical 1998–2004 Mirounga leonina Elephant seals SA, Argentina 1995–2005 Mirounga angustirostris Northern elephant seals NP, USA 1984–1986 Neophoca cinerea Australian sea lions SP, Australia 1988–2002 Zalophus californianus California sea lions NP, Mexico 1991–1995 Zalophus californianus California sea lions NP, Mexico 1992 Zalophus californianus California sea lions NP, USA 1984–1986 NOTE: Entanglement rate given as percentage of population affected. Temporal Trends: (+) increasing; (–) decreasing; (0) no change; (+/–) increase followed by decrease. Materials Legend: n = nets; p = packing plastic straps; r = rope/string/monofilament. Region Legend: SA = South Atlantic; NP = North Pacific; SP = South Pacific; SI = South Indian.

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 APPENDIX C Entanglement (percentage of Temporal population) Debris Type Trend Source 0.02–0.06 n, p, r – Hofmeyr et al., 2006 0.4–1.0 n, p, r Croxall et al., 1990 0.01–0.15 n, p, r + Hofmeyr and Bester, 2002 1.3–1.9 n, p, r Pemberton et al., 1992 0.11–0.66 n, p, r 0 Shaughnessy, 1980 0.6–2.84 n, p, r +/– Boren et al., 2006 0.4–0.9 n, p, r + Page et al., 2004 0–0.11 p + Stewart and Yochem, 1987 0.7 n, p, r + Henderson, 2001 0.4–0.78 + Donohue and Foley, 2007 0.001 r Campagna et al., 2007 0.17–0.2 n, p, r – Stewart and Yochem, 1987 0.2–1.3 n, p, r + Page et al., 2004 0.21–0.59 n, r + Zavala­González and Mellink, 1997 3.9–7.9 n, p, r Harcourt et al., 1994 0.08–0.14 n, p, r + Stewart and Yochem, 1987

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TABLE VI Ghost Fishing Rates: Gill Nets 0 Catch Gear Depth Decay Rate Half­Life Gear Lifea Region Gear Type (m) (d–1) (d) (d) Source NA, SW Wales gillnet 12–14 –0.0190 36 158 Kaiser et al., 1996 NA, SW Wales trammel net 12–14 –0.0207 33 145 Kaiser et al., 1996 NA, Portugal gillnet 15–18 –0.0542 13 55 Erzini et al., 1997 NA, Portugal trammelnet 15–18 –0.0204 34 147 Erzini et al., 1997 NA, UK bottom gillnets 20–25 –0.0069 101 434 Revill and Dunlin, 2003 Baltic Sea gillnet 32–40 –0.0198 35 151 Tschernij and Larsson, 2003 NA, Portugal gillnet 65–78 –0.0402 17 75 Santos et al., 2003 MED, Turkey gillnet: multifilament 9–14 –0.0224 31 134 Ayaz et al., 2006 MED, Turkey gillnet: monofilament 9–14 –0.0127 55 236 Ayaz et al., 2006 NP, Japan gillnet: artificial reef 13 –0.0104 67 288 Akiyama et al., 2007 NP, Japan gillnet: sandy bed 13 –0.0216 32 139 Akiyama et al., 2007 NOTE: Rates of ghost fishing by experimentally deployed entanglement nets. Region Legend: NA = North Atlantic; NP = North Pacific; MED = Mediterranean. aGear half­life and life were calculated as when the catch reached 50 percent and 5 percent of peak fishing capacity, respectively.

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 APPENDIX C TABLE VII Ghost Fishing Rates: Pots Target Species Location Mortality (%) Source Dungeness Crab NP, Canada 53 Breen, 1987 Lobster NP, NWHI 20 Parrish and Kazama, 1992 Blue Crabs Gulf of Mexico, USA 55 Guillory, 1998 Brown Crab NA, Wales 100 Bullimore et al., 2001 Lobster NA, Wales 100 Bullimore et al., 2001 Snow Crab Gulf of St. Lawrence 95 Hébert et al., 2001 King Crab NA, Norway 7 Godoy et al., 2003 NOTE: Rates of ghost fishing by experimentally deployed entanglement nets. Mortality rates indicate percent mortality among those caught in pots. Region Legend: NA = North Atlantic; NP = North Pacific; NWHI = Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

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