Programming Society, ORSA, and TIMS. He received his B.S. and M.S. in aerospace engineering and astronautics and an M.S. in operations research and statistics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and his Ph.D. in management science from the University of California, Berkeley.

Richard Bradley has been the head of the Energy Efficiency and Environment Division (EED) at the International Energy Agency in Paris since 2004. The EED provides analytical support to the IEA Standing Group on Long Term Co-Operation and to the Annex I Experts Group on a range of climate change and energy efficiency policy issues. For many years, he represented the United States as a senior negotiator on multilateral energy and environment agreements. He is also a former chair of the OECD/IEA Annex I Experts Group. He has written a number of articles on climate change issues.

Dallas Burtraw’s research interests include the design of environmental regulation, the costs and benefits of environmental regulation, and the regulation and restructuring of the electricity industry. Recently, Burtraw investigated the effects on the value of assets of electricity generation companies of alternative approaches to implementing emissions permit trading programs. He is evaluating the use of emission trading to achieve carbon emission reductions in the European Union. He also has helped to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of trading programs for nitrogen dioxide in the eastern United States and sulfur dioxide trading programs under the Clean Air Act Amendments. He also contributed to the valuation of the benefits of ecological improvements due to reduced acidification in the Adirondacks. Dr. Burtraw has a Ph.D. in economics (1989) and M.P.P. in public policy (1986) from the University of Michigan and has a B.S. in community economic development (1980) from the University of California, Davis.

Leon Clarke is a senior research economist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and he is a staff member of the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), a collaboration between PNNL and the University of Maryland at College Park. Dr. Clarke’s current research focuses on the role of technology in addressing climate change, scenario analysis, and integrated assessment model development. Dr. Clarke coordinated the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s emissions scenario development process, and he was a contributing author on the Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. Prior to joining PNNL, Dr. Clarke worked for RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc. (1990-1992), Pacific Gas & Electric Company (1992-1996), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2002-2003). He was also a research assistant at Stanford’s Energy Modeling Forum (1999-2002), where he worked on issues related to technological change and integrated assessment modeling. Dr. Clarke received B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from University of California, Berkeley, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering economic systems and operations research at Stanford University.

William R. Cline, senior fellow, has been associated with the Peterson Institute for International Economics since 1981 and holds a joint appointment at the Center for Global Development. During 1996-2001 while on leave from the Institute, Dr. Cline was deputy managing director and chief economist of the Institute of International Finance (IIF) in Washington, D.C. The IIF conducts research on emerging-market economies for its membership of over 300 international banks, investment banks, asset management companies, insurance companies, and other financial institutions. He has been a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics since its inception in 1981. Previously he was senior fellow, the Brookings Institution (1973-1981); deputy director of development and trade research, Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, U.S. Treasury Department (1971-1973); Ford Foundation Visiting Professor in Brazil (1970-1971); and lecturer and assistant professor of economics at Princeton University (1967-1970). He graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1963 and received his M.A. (1964) and Ph.D. (1969) in economics from Yale University.

John J. Conti is the director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting (OIAF) at the Energy Information Administration (EIA). His office is responsible for the domestic and international midterm energy projections and the Greenhouse Gas Program and publishes the Annual Energy Outlook, the International Energy Outlook, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, and the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In addition, due to the interest in the impact greenhouse gas mitigation policies on energy markets, his office has produced a number of special analyses for the U.S.

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