(DOE’s) Office of Policy, having originally come to DOE in 1991 as deputy assistant secretary for economic and environmental policy. His accomplishments as a career senior executive at DOE have been recognized with three Presidential Rank awards. Prior to his service at DOE, Dr. Gruenspecht was senior staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers (1989-1991), with primary responsibilities in the areas of environment, energy, regulation, and international trade. His other professional experience includes service as a faculty member at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie-Mellon University (1981-1988), economic adviser to the chairman of the U.S. International Trade Commission (1988-1989), and assistant director, economics and business, on the White House Domestic Policy Staff (1978-1979). Dr. Gruenspecht received his B.A. from McGill University in 1975 and his Ph.D. in economics from Yale University in 1982.

Bryan Hubbell is senior advisor for science and policy analysis for the Health and Environmental Impacts Division in the Office of Air and Radiation in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He has written and presented extensively on the health impacts and economic benefits and costs of air quality regulations, serving as the principal benefits analyst for many of EPA’s recent regulatory analyses, and led the project team that developed the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). His research interests include health impact assessments methods, integrated climate and air quality assessment models, reduced form air quality modeling, selection of optimal controls to maximize net benefits of air quality regulations, and improving valuation of health and environmental changes.

Nathaniel Keohane is director of economic policy and analysis at Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Dr. Keohane oversees EDF’s analytical work on the economics of climate policy, and helps to develop and advocate the organization’s policy positions on global warming. His academic research has focused on the design and performance of market-based environmental policies. Dr. Keohane has a Ph.D. in political economy and government (2001) from Harvard University, and a B.A. (1993) from Yale College. From 2001 to 2007, Dr. Keohane was an assistant and then associate professor of economics at the Yale School of Management. He has published articles on environmental economics in academic journals including the Journal of Public Economics, the RAND Journal of Economics, the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management and the Harvard Environmental Law Review. Dr. Keohane is also the co-author of Markets and the Environment (2007) and co-editor of Economics of Environmental Law (forthcoming).

Ray Kopp holds Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in economics and an undergraduate degree in finance. He has been a member of the Resources for the Future (RFF) research staff since 1977 and has held a variety of management positions within the institution. Dr. Kopp’s interest in environmental policy began in the late 1970s when he developed techniques to measure the effect of pollution control regulations on the economic efficiency of steam electric power generation. He then led the first examination of the cost of major U.S. environmental regulations in a full, general equilibrium, dynamic context by using an approach that is now widely accepted as state of the art in cost-benefit analysis. During his career Dr. Kopp has specialized in the analysis of environmental and natural resource issues with a focus on federal regulatory activity. He is an expert in techniques of assigning value to environmental and natural resources that do not have market prices, which is fundamental to cost-benefit analysis and the assessment of damages to natural resources. Dr. Kopp’s current research interests focus on the design of domestic and international polices to combat climate change.

Tom Kram is program manager for integrated assessment modeling at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (now PBL: formerly MNP and RIVM). His core responsibilities include the development and application of the IMAGE modeling framework, working with national and international research partnerships. The IMAGE model is developed to address issues arising from human development and related environmental concerns, with focus on mutual relationships and feedbacks between natural and human systems at the global scale. He earned an M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and operations research from Technical University Delft, specializing in economics of electric power production. Before coming to PBL, he worked at the Energy Research Centre. Besides sectoral and technological assessments, and energy, technology, and climate policy support work, he



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