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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop 14 Managing the Radius of Risk Lieutenant Colonel Drew F. Lieb, Deputy Superintendent of Homeland Security, New Jersey State Police Energy infrastructure security in the state of New Jersey is taken as a very serious matter. The New Jersey State Police (NJSP) took innovative steps after September 11, 2001, to address this issue and to blaze new paths to detect and prevent any further terrorist attacks. The Homeland Security Branch of the State Police is achieving this goal with their philosophy of “All crimes, all hazards, all threats, all the time.” Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) immediately advised nuclear facilities to go to the highest level of security in accordance with the system in place at the time. Advisories, orders, and guidance documents have since been issued to further strengthen security at nuclear power plants. While specific actions taken remain sensitive, they generally include increased security patrols, augmented security forces, additional security posts, installation of additional physical barriers, vehicle checks at greater stand-off distances, enhanced coordination with the law enforcement and intelligence communities, and more restrictive site controls for all personnel. As a result, some state governors assigned National Guard troops and state law enforcement agencies to work with security forces at nuclear power plants in their states. And the NRC continually assesses the threat environment in coordination with federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. The NJSP has an ongoing security initiative with all the nuclear electrical plants within the state.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop These initiatives add to the security posture already in place at these plants. This initiative is not just a force multiplier; it also provides for a system of additional monitoring at a statewide level. The colossal scale of pipeline and electrical infrastructure in the United States alone—more than 160,000 miles of crude oil pipelines, 4,000 offshore platforms, 10,400 power plants, and 160,000 miles of transmission lines—makes providing security a daunting challenge. Terrorist attacks, in particular, pose a grave threat. In videotape released in December 2005, deputy al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri singled out energy infrastructure as a key strategic target for his followers. Drive up and down the New Jersey Turnpike, and it is easy to see why this state is a potential playground for terrorists. There is a 2-mile stretch from Newark Airport to Port Elizabeth that terrorism experts have called “the most dangerous 2 miles in America.” A corridor state between Washington, D.C., and New York City, New Jersey is no stranger to terrorists or their acts. Whether it was the violent domestic terrorist groups of the 1960s and 1970s or the international terrorist cells of the 1980s and beyond, New Jersey has played host to their presence and their attacks. Because of the vast diversity of the state’s population, multinational terrorists have easily blended into the urban populations and assimilate within the ethnic cultures, while planning and eventually executing attacks against the major target across the Hudson River, New York City. New Jersey is the most densely populated state in the country. On this particular swath of land there are hundreds of potential terrorist targets—chemical plants, rail yards, rail lines, refineries, pipelines, an international airport, and the third-largest port in the United States. In a worst-case scenario, the potential to bring harm to more than 12 million people lies within a 14-mile radius. New Jersey comprises 21 counties with a population of 8.5 million; this is the highest population density of any state in the United States. With an average of 1,135 people per square mile, New Jersey’s population density is 13 times the national average. The Port of Newark–Elizabeth Marine Terminals are one of the world’s largest container ports. Newark International Airport is ranked seventh among the nation’s busiest airports and is the fifth-busiest international air gateway into the United States. Additionally, New Jersey is home to the largest petroleum containment system outside the Middle East. With a dense population and a major industrial base, the protection of New Jersey’s citizens and critical infrastructure is a top priority of the NJSP. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, confirmed that all Americans share responsibility for homeland security. Federal, state, local, private-sector, and nongovernmental entities and individual citizens across the state of New Jersey and the nation need to prepare as one entity for major events that may exceed the capabilities of any single agency. The American structure of overlapping federal, state, and local levels of governance provides unique opportunities and challenges. Opportunities arise from the flexibility to explore differences,
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop based on unique roles and responsibilities, and share best practices from across the state and nation. Challenges arise from the need to develop interconnected and complementary state and national homeland security strategies that respect those differences and balance flexibility with accountability. HISTORY The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001, forced the NJSP to undergo a paradigm shift in its overall approach to its duties and responsibilities. This horrific act was the catalyst for a major cultural change in the capability of law enforcement to provide a “proactive preventive defense” to thwart a terrorist event. The ability of the NJSP to sustain a visible police presence during elevated alerts placed an enormous strain on all assets and resources. On February 26, 2004, the NJSP announced the largest reorganization in its history with the creation of the Homeland Security Branch (HSB). The branch was conceived as two separate entities within one command structure—on one side, the Special Operations Section to provide both an immediate and a sustainable response and, on the other, the Emergency Management Section (EMS) immersed in the preparation and mitigation of any realized event within New Jersey. This reorganization fostered the adoption of a regional concept in an all-hazards approach to thwarting terror events, providing an immediate response mechanism, mitigating any natural disasters, and reducing crime. The pressures on our resources and assets have not been greater and will continue to grow in the years ahead. Any law enforcement response must be a concerted effort with a central focus on an efficient reality of addressing today’s fiscal climate. HSB must remain cognizant in properly managing its resources and assets while providing a sound proactive preventive defense for New Jersey. The ability to provide an effective response mechanism in an all-hazards approach to any realized natural or terrorist event will position New Jersey to prevent acts of terrorism, protect critical infrastructures and key resources, and mitigate any type of disaster. The NJSP has developed a multifaceted approach to interconnected and complementary homeland security strategy. First, the NJSP has formulated strategies in accordance with and under the direction of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s National Response Plan and National Priorities. Under the direction of the latter, NJSP HSB makes use of NJSP’s intelligence-led policing strategy to ensure that the necessary essential risk management assessments are conducted, all threats and vulnerabilities are identified, and the appropriate response is initiated. Once a potential threat or hazard has been identified, HSB is charged with gathering and documenting incident-related facts for recovery efforts and lessons-learned analysis. HSB’s mission is to provide a continuing level of preventive security and public safety through the efficient utilization of statewide resources. HSB also employs community policing strategies to gather information and
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop intelligence. Proactively and continually, HSB personnel maintain active two-way communications with the public at-large, where information and intelligence is obtained. Importantly, specific and relevant information is returned to the community. It is the intent of HSB that the community is aware that their contributions to homeland security are evaluated and their efforts are appreciated. It is also the intent of HSB to provide the community with appropriate training and equipment to aid in the homeland security mission. Infrastructure and force protection concerns can be immediately addressed through the Regional Operations Intelligence Center (ROIC) and an appropriate response can be directed. The Maritime Security Initiative (MSI) is one venue that HSB uses to interact with the community. Funding for equipment and training for preventive security is administered through the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI). UASI has been designated to provide immediate access to specialized assets within the state’s most populated region. Second, NJSP has reorganized its structure to place all existing front-line defenses under one unified command to more effectively and efficiently respond to calls for police service that involve the safety of citizens and critical infrastructure within the state and any large-scale national disasters. As a result of NJSP’s reorganization the HSB was created. A more detailed restructuring of NJSP placed the Special Operations Section (SOS) and the EMS under the direct command of HSB. The SOS was formed to act as NJSP’s rapid-response, all-hazards force. Under SOS, all existing frontline personnel and equipment were placed under one unified command. The SOS objective is to provide an increased and diverse presence while responding to a critical incident within the state or an out-of-state incident of national significance. If either an incident of national significance or a critical incident affecting the state occurs, SOS is prepared to mobilize personnel and resources in concert with our law enforcement, emergency response, and private-entity partners. NJSP and specifically SOS personnel are now better prepared to respond to any situation that the state or nation may face. Operation Louisiana Emergency Assistance Deployment (LEAD) demonstrated to the nation how NJSP’s and the state’s public safety resources could be effectively deployed by responding to the Gulf Coast areas affected by Hurricane Katrina. All sworn NJSP personnel and many civilian personnel assigned to HSB are highly trained in very specialized law enforcement-related fields. Specialization includes, but is not limited to, special weapons and tactics, explosives, hazardous materials handling, commercial vehicle safety, traffic accident reconstruction, aviation, maritime-related initiatives, and governmental infrastructure security. MISSION STATEMENT The mission of HSB is to provide a proactive, preventive defense regarding critical infrastructures and key resources through a sound intelligence-based collaboration with all our public- and private-sector partners, utilizing a philosophy
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop of the regional design concept. The terrorists and criminals do not respect geographic, political, or legal jurisdictional lines and often exploit these boundaries. Similarly, the threat from natural disasters will continue to threaten the lives and safety of all New Jersey citizens. This proactive philosophy will aid in thwarting any asymmetric threats and provide for the proper response and mitigation to any realized natural disasters within the state of New Jersey. The Special Operations Section consists of six separate and distinct bureaus: (1) State Governmental Security, (2) Marine Services, (3) Aviation, (4) Transportation Safety, (5) Deployment Services, and (6) Technical Response. The Emergency Management Section consists of three separate and distinct bureaus: (1) Communications, (2) Emergency Preparedness, and (3) Recovery. SPECIAL OPERATIONS SECTION State Governmental Security Bureau The State Governmental Security Bureau organizes, directs, staffs, coordinates, and reports the activities of the Security Operations Unit, State House Complex Security Unit, Justice Complex Security Unit, Investigations Unit, Central Security Unit, and the Executive Protection Unit. This entity facilitates the flow of information to and from the various units supervised and serves as a conduit for communication with other division entities. The chief of the State Governmental Security Bureau serves as the superintendent’s representative on the Capitol District Oversight Committee and the State Government Operations Group Committee under the umbrella of the Domestic Security Preparedness Task Force. The bureau also processes and issues permits to gather or use amplification equipment in or around state-regulated buildings and grounds. The State Governmental Security Bureau is committed to providing security and protection to visitors, employees, and property within the State Capital Complex. These critical services are provided in a professional, unbiased, and courteous manner. Realizing the importance of building agency partnerships, bureau members are dedicated to the concept of service-oriented policing. The bureau proudly preserves the traditions of the state police by “maintaining the good opinion of the people of the State of New Jersey.” Marine Services Bureau The New Jersey State Police Marine Services Bureau (MSB) is the primary provider of full-time law enforcement services for more than 200,000 registered vessels on all of New Jersey waterways and contiguous land areas. The mission of the MSB is to protect and serve our citizens and every aspect of the marine environment, preserve natural resources, enforce the laws of this state, and provide a preventive measure of homeland security that is second to none.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop The Marine Services Bureau comprises five main stations and four substations. These facilities are strategically located throughout the state to address recreational boating issues, fish and game laws, search and rescue, criminal matters, and homeland security. The stations are located in the following areas: Atlantic City Bivalve Burlington Lake Hopatcong Monmouth County Newark Bay North Wildwood Ocean (Waretown) Point Pleasant The waters of this state include the following: 1,960 square miles of coastline, fresh water lakes, and rivers 127 miles of Atlantic Ocean coastline 1,750 miles of interior tidal shoreline 100 inland bays, creeks, coves, and rivers More than 800 lakes and ponds totaling more than 700 square miles of surface area Supplemental to standard state police training, all of the troopers assigned to the Marine Services Bureau patrol function attend a 4-week marine law enforcement school and then must demonstrate their proficiency through successful completion of the Vessel Operator Certification Program. To maintain a high level of proficiency, the certification process must be revalidated annually. Separate from and supplemental to internal certifications, approximately one-third of the personnel assigned to the Marine Services Bureau are captains licensed by the U.S. Coast Guard, with licenses that include both tonnage and commercial towing endorsements. Marine Services Bureau training also includes water survival, ocean rescue, and ice rescue. Patrol vessels vary widely from 13 to 50 feet in length, from single outboard to twin diesel inboards producing in excess of 1,000 horsepower, from fiberglass to aluminum, and from open to fully enclosed weather-tight cabins with long-range capabilities. The equipment onboard the vessels include basic marine safety equipment, very high frequency (VHF) radios, police radios, high-technology thermal imaging equipment, side-scan sonar, depth finders, and radar-interfaced navigation equipment. As a preventive measure intended to increase boating safety and reduce wa-
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop terway user conflict, during the winter months a contingent of troopers is assigned to various schools throughout the state to teach boating safety to students. Aviation Bureau The Aviation Bureau provides emergency medical evacuations (medevac) transportation of seriously injured victims of motor vehicle, industrial, recreational accidents, and so forth, to trauma centers. It also provides air support for the various commands within the Division of State Police, as well as other law enforcement agencies that request assistance, in accomplishing numerous police and homeland security activities. It is the responsibility of the Aviation Bureau to provide services for the following: On-scene medevac transportation of seriously injured victims of motor vehicle, industrial, and recreational accidents, and so forth, to trauma centers Interhospital medevac transportation of seriously ill patients to specialty care facilities, such as burn centers, reimplantation centers, cardiac centers, and so forth The Aviation Bureau will provide air support for the various commands within the Division of State Police and other law enforcement agencies that request assistance in accomplishing their police and homeland security mission. The bureau provides airborne expeditious search and rescue, including forward-looking infrared capabilities; aids disabled motorists; and facilitates traffic flow by identifying congested areas and suggesting solution alternatives. Aviation Bureau homeland security operations also include identification and surveillance of important infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, power plants, refineries, and railways. Additionally, the Aviation Bureau will provide alert notification in selected areas of the state’s Emergency Planning Zones and provide surveillance of evacuation areas in the Emergency Planning Zones. The Aviation Bureau is responsible for maintaining its fleet of aircraft in compliance with all applicable federal aviation regulations, airworthiness directives, manufacturer’s service bulletins, and aviation maintenance manual procedures and for ensuring that all Aviation Bureau maintenance technicians are properly trained and certified to maintain bureau aircraft in an airworthy condition at all times. The Aviation Bureau ensures that all pilots are properly trained and proficient by complying with Aviation Bureau performance standards as outlined in the operations manual and that all pilots meet Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recency-of-experience requirements for night operation, instrument currency, and flight reviews.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Transportation Safety Bureau The Transportation Safety Bureau (TSB) acts as the executive liaison to the Department of Transportation, Division of Motor Vehicles, Division of Highway Traffic Safety, and the Federal Highway Administration. The bureau provides technical assistance (including, but not limited to, commercial motor vehicle accident investigations) to state and municipal police departments, prosecutor’s offices, the general public, and other government agencies. While the bureau’s primary function is designated as commercial vehicle enforcement, TSB has a very important secondary role. The bureau acts as a rapid deployment force within HSB. The bureau is equipped to react to any state emergency and operate in a buffer-zone protection plan, providing a force multiplier in the detection of terrorist threats and actions in the all-hazards–all-crimes spectrum. Commercial Carrier/Safety Inspection Unit Commercial Carrier/Safety Inspection Unit personnel are responsible for implementing and enforcing federal regulations governing commercial vehicle drivers, related safety equipment, and the transportation of hazardous materials over state highways. They are also responsible for enforcing commercial vehicle size and weight laws. Having adopted the Federal Motor Carrier Hazardous Materials Regulations and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, the division has assigned numerous teams of specially trained troopers to conduct roadside inspections of commercial vehicles to enforce federal safety regulations. Additional responsibilities include unannounced school bus safety inspections and commercial vehicle safety presentations to both the public and the private sectors. Construction Unit The Construction Unit enforces the rules and regulations governing traffic control and safety in highway work areas. The unit’s members inspect New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) construction sites to ensure that contractors are complying with the traffic control plans established for their projects. Troopers assigned to the unit receive specialized training in work-zone safety and traffic control for highway construction areas. This training is combined with their experience in motor vehicle law enforcement to create a comprehensive safety program. The unit’s members also provide work-zone safety training for local police agencies and for other governmental and private organizations.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Diesel Emissions Unit The Diesel Emissions Unit (DEU) works in conjunction with the Motor Vehicle Commission to conduct roadside emission testing of heavy-duty diesel trucks, buses, and other diesel-powered vehicles. DEU is responsible for implementation and enforcement of federal regulations governing commercial vehicle drivers and related safety equipment. The unit also is responsible for enforcing state statutes governing size and weight regulations. Hazardous Material Transportation Enforcement Unit Hazardous Material Transportation Enforcement Unit (HMTEU) personnel are responsible for roadside hazardous materials inspections as well as commercial vehicle inspections. HMTEU has the primary responsibility for enforcing Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations along with the Hazardous Material Regulations also defined in Title 49. HMTEU is also responsible for an overtime joint Federal/State Internal Revenue Service Dyed Diesel Fuel Program. Motor Coach/Compliance Review Unit Motor Coach/Compliance Review Unit (MCCRU) personnel are responsible for roadside inspections of motor coaches, buses, and other commercial vehicles. The unit enforces Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations and Title 39 of the state motor vehicle code. The MCCRU also maintains the New Entrant Safety Audit Program. This program is a Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) initiative that involves troopers meeting with representatives from motor carriers who have applied for a federal Department of Transportation (DOT) number. During the meetings, carrier representatives are informed of the minimum requirements needed to operate within the guidelines of the FMCSA. The MCCRU conducts compliance reviews of motor carriers that have failed to maintain an acceptable safety rating or have been involved in a fatal or otherwise serious commercial motor vehicle crash. This review involves an extensive check of a motor carrier’s records, equipment, and drivers. This is an enforcement program, which the FMCSA utilizes to impose fines and out-of-service orders. Additional responsibilities include instructing motor coach inspection courses. The courses are given around the country and are mandated by the unit’s funding source. The unit is also responsible for responding to and assisting with postcrash inspections. Deployment Services Bureau The Deployment Services Bureau consists of the following units:
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Infrastructure Security Unit Events Planning Unit Incident Management Unit The Infrastructure Security Unit provides professional and technical assistance to agencies through the development of security surveys, vulnerability assessments and buffer zone protection plans (BZPP). The unit serves as the coordinator for providing assistance to the Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness Critical Infrastructure BZPP site survey program. They evaluate and review existing security plans, providing recommendations for modifications and improvements. They assist in developing comprehensive security plans for demonstrations, protests, rallies, and major political events conducted in and around state government buildings and grounds, as well as other identified critical infrastructure. The Events Planning Unit coordinates operational and administrative planning for events and incidents that require assets outside of troop operations deployments. Events Planning maintains a centralized file of all plans developed for events and incidents while conducting and preparing pre-action and after-action planning reports, providing recommendations to the deputy superintendent of homeland security/superintendent for consideration and information. The unit coordinates planning activities with the Emergency Management Section for planned events and actual incidents as well as activities and details with other federal, state, and municipal agencies. The unit serves as liaison and point of contact with the New Jersey National Guard. They coordinate and maintain State Police Emergency Event Deployment (SPEED) recall rosters with the assistance of division section administrative officers. They coordinate special details as a result of any homeland security initiative (that is, Target Hardening/THREAT, Level Orange Deployment). The Incident Management Unit (IMU) serves as a member of the Incident Management Response Team (IMRT) and responds to intermodal transportation incidents and other incidents as dictated by the Special Operations and Emergency Management sections protocols. They serve as a liaison to the incident commander. They ensure that all management issues are satisfied, including, but not limited to, asset management, maintenance of operational time lines, and logistical and planning support with traffic routing. IMU is responsible for coordinating NJDOT engineering staff and federal, state, county, and local agencies in the development of detailed diversion plans for state and interstate highways. They work with local, county, state, and federal agencies and their leadership to promote statewide incident initiatives. This will include attendance at monthly traffic officers, emergency management, safety council, emergency medical, and fire services meetings to market, assist, and develop planning tools for effective incident management. They respond and support all New Jersey Task Force One (NJTF-1) Search and Rescue operations. The unit also provides incident manage-
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop ment training through outreach efforts to authorities in both the public and the private sectors. Incident Management facilitates and coordinates postincident response evaluations (PIRE), which are designed to evaluate the emergency response to incidents for improved incident response and practices pertaining to transportation. They assist in the development of comprehensive operational plans for major events that support and promote the safety and well-being of all participants and attendees while working with established Traffic Incident Management Planning Teams (TIMPT) in all counties to develop contingency plans and other related initiatives that support the goal of “Keep the Traffic Moving.” Technical Response Bureau Today, in advancing its overall homeland security mission, the NJSP has begun to implement a transformation process to better allocate its finite resources toward addressing terrorism and natural and manmade disasters. In keeping with the strategies and established practices outlined in the National Strategy for Homeland Security and The 9/11 Commission Report, HSB has evolved into a mission-oriented entity capable of confronting the challenges associated with emergency preparedness in a homeland security era. The creation of the Technical Response Bureau (TRB) placed those technical entities under the command structure of a single authority, enhancing our ultimate responsibility in maintaining the safety of our state and strengthening our homeland security mission. The TRB is an intricate component of HSB and is the primary technical response element for statewide emergencies. The bureau comprises four distinctive units: Hazardous Materials and Response Unit (HMRU) Arson/Bomb Unit Technical Emergency and Mission Specialists (TEAMS) Unit Canine Unit The TRB instituted a capabilities-based strategy among its four subsidiary units. The capabilities-based strategy provides a framework for properly planned, organized, equipped, and trained personnel. Each unit maintains proficient capabilities within its respective discipline. However, cross-training among the units allows for a bureau-wide response to any critical event. This vital component of the TRB makes it the premier technical response entity in the state. Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) HMRU has dual areas of responsibilities within its mission. The unit provides operational response and planning support for force protection and for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) incidents to
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop and a 12-week scent class. They ensure compliance with the Attorney General’s K9 Training Standards and utilize the certification methods set forth by the U.S. Police Canine Association. They also conduct monthly in-service training. The Canine Training Academy is located at the former Fort Dix Station, located in Burlington County. Since the inception of the NJSP Canine Training Academy, more than 260 canine teams from various agencies have successfully completed the training and are certified in scent detection and patrol. The academy also provides in-service training in scent and patrol functions to an additional 70 teams during the ensuing months. The Canine Unit was selected by the Attorney General’s Office to oversee the New Jersey Detect and Render Safe Canine Program. This program includes certification training, maintenance and in-service training, and statewide deployments of the Detect and Render Safe police canines for homeland security and to provide infrastructure security checks. All Canine Unit members conduct police canine education lectures and demonstrations for the Division of State Police; school and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) presentations; federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies; and the citizenry of the state of New Jersey. The NJSP Canine Unit teams and other canine unit teams throughout the country are a tremendous asset to the law enforcement community. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SECTION (EMS) The Emergency Management Section supervisor holds the rank of major and also serves as deputy state director of the New Jersey Office of Emergency Management (NJOEM). The section is under the command of the deputy superintendent of homeland security, who is the assistant state director, Office of Emergency Management. The section organizes, directs, staffs, coordinates, and reports the activities of the Communications Bureau, Emergency Preparedness Bureau, and the Recovery Bureau. The supervisor and staff facilitate the flow of information to and from the various bureaus supervised and serve as a conduit for communication with other division entities. The section is also responsible for planning, directing, and coordinating emergency operations within the state that are beyond local control. The following three bureaus make up the Emergency Management Section: Communications Bureau Emergency Preparedness Bureau Recovery Bureau
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Communications Bureau Radio/Electronics Maintenance Unit (REMU) The Radio/Electronics Maintenance Unit (REMU) has twenty-three 800-megahertz tower sites with their attendant equipment and buildings, as well as nearly a dozen more low-band tower sites. Its responsibilities include, but are not limited to, all radio and related equipment procurement, distribution, maintenance, and control; maintenance of other public safety equipment; and management of the system’s programming. In addition, the REMU provides, maintains, and controls closed-circuit television, tape recordings, and other miscellaneous electronic equipment for the division. Telecommunications Unit This unit is responsible for all of the division’s telecommunications needs, including telephone service, pagers, cellular phones, and maintenance of the various systems needed to support these services. The unit also handles the liaison between the division and the various service vendors to ensure that the division’s needs are met in a timely and proper manner. All of the telephone equipment is owned by the division and is maintained and administered by the Telecommunications Unit. The unit coordinates the 1,000 pagers used by division personnel and is also responsible for funding and maintaining the pagers provided by the Communications Bureau. In addition to administrating the division’s telecommunications needs, the unit also provides security to prevent unauthorized use of the telephone lines. This security is provided by monitoring outgoing calls from division headquarters utilizing the Station Messaging Detail Record and utilizing a barrier code to prevent unauthorized use of the division’s toll-free number. Emergency Preparedness Bureau The Emergency Preparedness Bureau includes the following units: North Regional Unit Central Regional Unit South Regional Unit Radiological Emergency Response Planning and Technical Unit Exercise Unit Urban Search and Rescue NJTF-1 Federal Surplus Property Program
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop North Regional Unit The North Regional Unit coordinates emergency management activities throughout the northern 7 counties and 206 municipalities. Of these 206 political subdivisions, 31 receive Emergency Management Assistance (EMA) funding. These EMA-funded jurisdictions result in a unique relationship with regional personnel, who interact with them on a regular basis to ensure their compliance with the EMA work plan. This plan describes the content of the agreement by which they are funded. Regional personnel meet with and evaluate all EMA-funded jurisdictions for year-end reports, development and review of Emergency Operation Plans (EOPs), exercises, and performance review of semiannual and final EMA claim forms. Central Regional Unit The Central Regional Unit coordinates emergency management activities throughout the central 7 counties and 192 municipalities, 35 of which receive EMA funding as described above. South Regional Unit The South Regional Unit coordinates emergency management activities throughout the southern 7 counties and 167 municipalities, 24 of which receive EMA funding as described above. EMS regional personnel represent the governor and state director of emergency management at all emergency and disaster situations in the state. They monitor these situations and assure proper response and recovery activities. Response to an incident provides interaction between local and state government that expedites and centralizes the state’s response. These activities include state, county, and municipal emergency operations center (EOC) activations, participation in actual operations, and technical assistance during the response and recovery phase. They are also responsible for providing status reports of events, through the appropriate channels, to the Office of the Governor and the attorney general. In the postemergency phase they are responsible for the incident’s evaluation and critique. It is also the responsibility of the regional units to assist with the development, review, and compliance of all county and municipal EOPs. The state has currently achieved a compliance rate of 95 percent approved EOPs. Responsibilities of representatives of the regions fall into 17 functional categories. They are required to attend county, municipal, and other agency meetings; attend and conduct NJSP and NJOEM training; conduct exercises and participate in local exercises; respond to all major incidents and disasters; provide direct EOP development assistance; and conduct compliance surveys.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Radiological Emergency Response Planning and Technical Unit The Radiological Emergency Response Planning and Technical (RERP&T) Unit develops radiological emergency response plans and procedures for protecting the population in areas within 10 miles of the nuclear power plants located in New Jersey. They develop and conduct an annual exercise of the radiological emergency response plan for each area surrounding one of these plants. They also coordinate the interaction of the state, county, municipal, and federal governments in preparing for response activities to incidents at a nuclear power plant. They also serve as technical advisor to the state director of emergency management and the Governor’s Office in incidents or exercises involving radiological materials in transit or at fixed facilities. The RERP&T Unit is responsible for the tasks identified in the Radiation Accident Response Act, 26:2D-37. These tasks center on the development, maintenance, and exercise of the state’s radiological emergency response plan. This is also a requirement of the federal government according to 44 CFR 350, Review and Approval of Radiological Emergency Response Plans. The unit develops, coordinates, conducts, and evaluates annual exercises of the plans for the Salem/Hope Creek Plant and the Oyster Creek Plant. These exercises test each major component of the plans and serve to measure the adequacy of those plans and the skills of the responders. Exercises are required annually under the Radiation Accident Response Act. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires the state to conduct these exercises biennially. The unit reviews and revises the RERP plans based upon exercise evaluations, revised federal guidance, and changing demographics. The unit also develops, maintains, and exercises standard operating procedures (SOPs), which provide guidance on specific tasks identified in the plans. It develops, provides, and evaluates training to emergency responders on the specific tasks and SOPs identified in the plans. The unit is responsible for the element of the Radiation Accident Response Act that allows for the purchase of equipment necessary for state, county, and municipal governments to implement the missions assigned to them in the plans. The unit is responsible for supporting the New Jersey Office of Emergency Management’s RERP function by calibration, certification, retrofit, repair, stockpiling, and inventory control of radiation protection equipment. This unit’s personnel respond on a 24-hour basis to all radiological incidents or potential incidents that occur in or threaten New Jersey. The unit maintains an NRC-licensed radiological protection program for all licensable radioactive material in the custody of the NJOEM. It conducts multilevel radiological training for state, county, municipal, and private-sector personnel and supervises and monitors all radiological exposures to state police personnel.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop Exercise Unit The Exercise Unit was established by the Domestic Security Preparedness Task Force and is composed of representatives from the State Police Emergency Management Section, the Department of Military and Veteran Affairs, and the Division of Fire Safety. Its first priority is the development and delivery of domestic preparedness exercises for all levels of government and the private sector. The unit is also responsible for sponsoring and supporting “all-hazards” exercises for government, private business, and industry throughout the state. The second priority of the unit is the coordination and production of after-action evaluation reports and improvement action plans following the conclusion of exercises, particularly exercises that are funded through the state’s federal homeland security grant. When available, the unit also utilizes Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG) funding from FEMA to provide financial assistance to opportunistic local jurisdictions and agencies or disciplines seeking to make corrective modifications to their systems or programs following these exercises. The third priority of this unit is the management of exercise data using federally sponsored databases. The unit also maintains the administrative obligation for maintaining program currency with federal and state requirements for incident management and exercise methodology. The unit also collaborates with the Field Training Unit in delivering exercise design and evaluation courses for the expanding emergency management community. Urban Search and Rescue The Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Unit coordinates and completes the administrative requirements for NJTF-1, including personnel and training database management. This unit is able to coordinate the efforts to keep NJTF-1 at a state of readiness commensurate to the FEMA National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System. They also develop, deliver, and coordinate urban search-and-rescue-related training focused on such topics as structural collapse operations, trench collapse operations, confined space operations, rope rescue (basic and advanced), and swift-water rescue. This unit is also able to run training programs to ensure that they meet and do not exceed the requirements that are set forth by the FEMA US&R System. NJTF-1 provides advanced search-and-rescue capabilities to victims trapped or entombed in structurally collapsed buildings. Specially trained in advanced-level search-and-rescue capabilities, NJTF-1 members provide efficient and effective rescue technologies in a planned and measured response system that mirrors FEMA and National Fire Protection Association standards and guidelines. The members of NJTF-1 conduct all search-and-rescue operations in a professional, ethical, and understanding manner to protect the dignity of victims and the local response communities that it serves. Task force members maintain their skills
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop and abilities in technical rescue training with the goal of total preparation for any incidents that may occur now or in the future that require deployments to natural or manmade disasters, hurricanes, floods, conflagrations, explosions, earthquakes, or weapons of mass destruction incidents that are beyond the capability of local emergency services. Recovery Bureau The Recovery Bureau includes the following units: Public Assistance Unit Preparedness Unit Mitigation Unit Field Training Unit Support Services Unit Public Assistance Unit The Public Assistance Unit is responsible for managing the Public Assistance Grant Program before, during, and after presidentially declared disasters or emergencies. During a declared disaster, the state of New Jersey, in conjunction with FEMA, provides supplemental aid to communities to help them recover from the effects of a disaster as quickly as possible. The Public Assistance Unit serves as the principal point of contact for the state. As such, it is responsible for conducting preliminary damage assessments to determine the impact and magnitude of damage and the resulting unmet needs of individuals, businesses, the public sector, and the community as a whole. In the aftermath of a disaster, unit personnel are assigned to FEMA–state preliminary damage assessment teams and coordinate the county and municipal damage assessment efforts as well. The results of damage assessment surveys are assembled by the Public Assistance Unit and presented in a written report for the governor’s consideration. If federal intervention is requested and approved, the Public Assistance Unit provides information about various federal disaster reimbursement opportunities to officials of all eligible state, county, and municipal agencies, as well as designated private nonprofit organizations. The Public Assistance Unit is responsible for coordinating applicants’ briefings and kickoff meetings to discuss the parameters of declarations, scope-of-work activities, eligible categories, and documentation required to receive state and federal assistance. The unit also provides technical expertise in the preparation and submission of federal grant and loan applications in accordance with the Robert T. Stafford Act, which requires that eligible assistance be delivered as quickly and efficiently as possible consistent with federal laws and regulations. The unit maintains appropriate files
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop and develops related procedures that comply with all applicable laws, regulations, and Office of Management and Budget circulars governing standard grants management practices. The Public Assistance Unit staff is also responsible for assisting the Field Training Unit in coordinating and delivering training programs and seminars related to the disaster reimbursement process. Preparedness Unit Preparedness is an integral part of the disaster management cycle. It is the foundation for reducing losses as well as easing response, recovery, and mitigation efforts. The traditional role of the Preparedness Unit is devising hazard-specific and multihazard plans, educating the public, and conducting public outreach. As our disasters become more complex and our management of emergencies tends towards multihazard integrative efforts, the Preparedness Unit can serve as an outstanding “first line of defense” for combating hazard losses and expenditures. Currently, the unit coordinates a multitude of planning efforts, including maintenance of the state emergency operations plan and the state emergency procedures directory. It also maintains checklists and standardized texts as technical guidance to local government on development of emergency plans and procedures. Hazard-specific plans include those focused on winter storms, hurricanes, reverse-lane evacuations, and drought emergencies. Significant strides have been made in improving our mental health, special needs, and school planning initiatives as well as establishing a growing public outreach program for natural hazards and evacuation. The unit also maintains liaison and coordination of emergency activities with state departments and various allied support agencies and is responsible for the readiness of the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The unit is an integral player in the implementation of “ETeam” technology for use in the state EOC. Another critical role is the timely notification of the emergency management community regarding potentially dangerous weather conditions. The unit administers the National Weather Service’s (NWS) StormReady® Program for communities. The unit also coordinates the state’s tidal and inland flood warning programs and systems and participates in the New York City Evacuation, Trans-Hudson, and Port Authority emergency planning groups. Mitigation Unit The Mitigation Unit has the mission of enhancing state, county, and municipal risk reduction through the development and implementation of mitigation strategies. By definition, hazard mitigation is any sustained action that prevents or reduces the loss of property or human life from recurring hazards. The Mitigation Unit accomplishes this task by implementing and administering several grant-based programs in conjunction with FEMA.
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop The primary programs administered by the Mitigation Unit are Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA), Pre-Disaster Mitigation and Pre-Disaster Mitigation Competitive (PDM and PDM-C), and the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP). Counties and municipalities are made aware of these programs through letters announcing upcoming grants for which eligible communities in their jurisdictions may apply. Additional workshops are held to further explain available programs, and municipalities are encouraged to apply for grant funds. Upon receiving completed applications, NJOEM will narrow the list of prospective applicants based on existing plans and potential project needs. Follow-up is conducted through extensive use of e-mail communications and phone contact. The state Hazard Mitigation Team will convene to review all applications for funding. Approved project applications and planning grant information are forwarded to FEMA for review and approval. Upon notification of approval from FEMA, members of the Mitigation Unit notify appropriate municipalities of the award. NJOEM personnel conduct workshops and participate in public meetings with the goal of helping municipalities complete the grant process successfully. Additional workshops are held around the state with presentations given to explain the various programs and their benefits to potential participants. Program partnerships with resource agencies such as the League of Municipalities and professional, civic, and trade-based organizations are utilized to disseminate information and garner public input and inquiries. During a postdisaster period, Mitigation Unit personnel will work closely with all involved communities to assist with the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program in the same manner as is done with predisaster programs. Field Training Unit The Field Training Unit (FTU) is responsible for conducting emergency management training courses for state, county, municipal, and private-sector personnel who have emergency management responsibilities or work in related fields. These training programs are designed to assist the public and private sectors in their ability to mitigate, plan for, respond to, and recover from the effects of natural and technological emergencies. All training provided is consistent with training initiatives on the federal level. The unit offers a variety of interrelated courses designed specifically to improve the professional, managerial, and technical skills of people involved in emergency management. These state-of-the-art training programs are designed to achieve a comprehensive and integrated emergency management system that addresses all hazards at the local, county, and state levels. Nearly 35 different courses are presented in an adult learning format by teams of experienced, dynamic instructors and subject matter experts. The contributions of the instructors, combined with the interaction of the student body, develop each student’s emergency management skills and help them to excel in service to their
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop communities. The unit is also actively involved in conducting emergency-management-related presentations at conferences, seminars, and workshops. The FTU reaches nearly 4,000 students per year in various instructional settings. Through the coordination of the FTU, the NJOEM has become a participant in the American Council on Education (ACE) College Credit Recommendation Service (CREDIT). To date, approximately one-third of the courses offered by the NJOEM have been recommended for college credit through ACE. The FTU is also responsible for development of the State Community Relations (CR) Plan. The CR Plan is implemented following a large-scale emergency or disaster. Working in conjunction with FEMA, NJOEM Community Relations officers work door-to-door in disaster areas to collect and disseminate information to and from affected communities; locate individuals who may need special assistance or encouragement to initiate the disaster assistance application process; and identify political, social, religious, ethnic, business, and other interest-group leadership for the purpose of developing a team effort in the recovery process. Support Services Unit The Support Services Unit coordinates the development of all Citizen Corps Programs (Community Emergency Response Teams, Neighborhood Watch, Volunteers in Police Service, Fire Corps, and Medical Reserve Corps) throughout the state of New Jersey, with a special emphasis on the urban areas of the state. Coordinating interactions with the New Jersey Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters (VOAD), the Support Services Unit strengthens ties with the New Jersey business community and maintains a liaison with both the national and the state emergency management communities. The unit’s training functions include the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) system training and A-Team certification to all branches of state, county, and municipal emergency management coordinators. For preparedness, the Support Services Unit has built and maintains a comprehensive resource directory database of all available emergency response assets in New Jersey. REGIONAL OPERATIONS INTELLIGENCE CENTER (ROIC) The Regional Operations Intelligence Center (ROIC) is operational and employs a fusion center concept to facilitate the coordination of governmental departments and partners in emergency management to facilitate a concerted response through the deployment of appropriate resources as they are needed. “The ROIC is supercharging this state’s ability to respond to all hazards and all threats,” said NSJP Superintendent Colonel Rick Fuentes. “From the vantage point of this fusion center, all dangers to New Jersey’s safety can be analyzed and appropriate responses directed. The center will improve our ability to react to everything from terrorism to gang violence to natural/manmade disasters
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop and even major health events.” The true strength of the ROIC is found in its partnerships. New Jersey’s “fusion center” is the state’s hub for intelligence and includes input and personnel from agencies such as the FBI, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and FEMA; regional partners such as the New York City Police Department (NYPD), neighboring state police departments, and numerous state agencies; and from New Jersey’s county, municipal, and nongovernmental partners. The ROIC is also the home for the New Jersey Office of Emergency Management and the state’s EOC. It serves as the command center for all stateled emergency response operations, such as natural disasters, chemical or nuclear emergencies, or terror alerts. During emergency response missions, the ROIC serves as the gateway for situational information and requests for aid. It allows a coordinated and measured response by matching requests with resources and personnel from federal, state, and local agencies. The center’s cavernous support room will serve as the focal point of multiagency response during times of large crises. At more than two stories high with 8,644 square feet of floor space, the support room is set up with 100 interdependent workstations that can be assigned to any configuration of agencies involved in an event. Each computer can take the assigned agency’s input and send it to a 32-foot-wide by 12-foot-high video wall that keeps all partners apprised of the situation. This screen can show many different inputs at one time. Overlooking the support room from the second floor is the executive conference room, from which the governor and top-level decision makers can view the situation and have videoconferences. Even during calm times, the ROIC’s intelligence activities are continually operating. The Watch Operations component provides situational awareness to state leaders and real-time tactical intelligence to the operators in the field. A key element within Watch Operations is the NJSP Call Center, which handles nearly 70 percent of the 911 cellular calls originating from within New Jersey and adjacent states. The information received by this center is pushed to all elements of the ROIC for identification of trends and patterns, as well as operational deployments. The ROIC’s analytical capability is the key to intelligence-led policing that the NJSP has championed. Analysts from all partnering agencies collaboratively link bits of data creating “actionable” intelligence that guides tactical maneuvers in real time or creates crime-fighting strategies for the long term. It is through a robust analytical component that law enforcement has the best chance of averting major criminal acts and responding appropriately to rapidly escalating emergencies to prevent them from becoming more serious. The state of New Jersey has witnessed the creation of the HSB within the NJSP, through the restructuring of its most specialized bureaus and units. The State Police Special Operations Section offers an operational deterrence-and-response capability through tactical and high-visibility strategic missions, while its Emergency Management Section focuses on planning, preparedness, mitigation, and disaster response. The Technical Response Bureau of the Special Opera-
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Countering Terrorism: Biological Agents, Transportation Networks, and Energy Systems - Summary of a U.S.-Russian Workshop tions Section has been designated as the state’s principal response component if a terrorist attack occurs. The HSB is improving its abilities to coordinate its organizational resources to prevent, deter, respond, and recover from a terrorist attack. The NJSP is applying new strategies to improve its capabilities for future threats. It is implementing the National Response Plan of the National Incident Management System, which provides organizational concepts and processes for effective, efficient, and collaborative incident management at all levels. The NJSP has entered into a partnership with 14 other state agencies to form the New Jersey Domestic Security Preparedness Task Force. Through this unity and combination of resources, the state of New Jersey has significantly improved its capability to counter terrorism. This statement from the Hurricane Katrina after-action report best sums up the actions of the NJSP HSB: “Terrorists still plot their evil deeds, and nature’s unyielding power will continue. We know with certainty that there will be tragedies in our future. Our obligation is to work to prevent the acts of evil men; reduce America’s vulnerability to both the acts of terrorists and the wrath of nature; and prepare ourselves to respond to and recover from the manmade and natural catastrophes that do occur.” REFERENCES CNN.com. November 2, 2004. Bin Laden: Goal is to bankrupt U.S. Available online at edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/11/01/binladen.tape/index.html. Accessed May 5, 2008. Cooper, Anderson. August 15, 2006. The most dangerous two miles in America. Available online at www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/anderson.cooper.360/blog/2006/08/most-dangerous-two-milesin-america.html. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. February 2006. Available online at www.whitehouse.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned.pdf. National Security Task Force on Energy. 2006. Energy Security in the Twenty-First Century: A New National Strategy. Available online at www.americanprogress.org/kf/energy_security_report.pdf. New Jersey Domestic Preparedness Task Force. 2006. 2004/2005 Progress Report. Available online at www.njhomelandsecurity.gov/dsptf/NJDSPTF-04-05-021706.pdf. New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness. 2007. The Terrorist Threat to Energy Infrastructure. New Jersey State Police. Homeland Security Branch. Available online at www.njsp.org. Accessed April 26, 2007. New Jersey State Police. 2006. Practical Guide to Intelligence-Led Policing. Available online at www.njsp.org/divorg/invest/pdf/njsp_ilpguide_010907.pdf. State of New Jersey, Office of the Governor. January 24, 2007. Governor Corzine and law enforcement officials open state-of-the-art emergency management facility. Press release available online at www.state.nj.us/governor/news/news/approved/20070124a.html. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2005. National Preparedness Goal. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8: National Preparedness. Available online at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/InterimNationalPreparednessGoal_03-31-05_1.pdf. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2006. National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Available online at www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/NIPP_Plan.pdf.