versity of Wisconsin, Madison. He served on the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Biotechnology Assessment Committee. He co-organized a joint U.S. Army–Israeli Ministry of Defense conference on bioremediation and has published on many neuroscience topics, including the structure of human synaptic complexes. He earned a B.A. from Columbia University in New York City and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Martin P. Paulus is professor in residence for the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California at San Diego. Dr. Paulus has a number of publications, including “A temporal and spatial scaling hypothesis for the behavioral effects of psychostimulants,” published in 1991, and “A realistic, minimal ‘middle layer’ for neural networks,” published in 1989. He received the Society for Biological Psychiatry Outstanding Resident Award in 1997 and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill Young Investigator Award in 2000. He earned his doctorate in medicine at Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. He is a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and a member of the Society for Neuroscience.

Judith L. Swain (IOM) is executive director of the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Lien Ying Chow Professor of Medicine at the National University of Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, and adjunct professor at the University of California at San Diego. A proven leader, Dr. Swain served as chair of the Department of Medicine at Stanford University, President of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and is currently president of the American Association of Physicians. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and currently serves on the IOM Council and the National Research Council’s Board on Army Science and Technology. She earned an M.D. from the University of California at San Diego and a B.S. in chemistry from the University of California at Los Angeles.

Paul J. Zak is professor of economics and founding director of the Center for Neuroeconomics Studies at Claremont Graduate University. Dr. Zak also serves as professor of neurology at Loma Linda University Medical Center and is a senior researcher at the University of California at Los Angeles. He is credited with the first published use of the term “neuroeconomics” and has been at the vanguard of this new discipline, which integrates neuroscience and economics. He organized the world’s first doctoral program in neuroeconomics at Claremont Graduate University and now administers it. Dr. Zak’s lab discovered in 2004 that a chemical in our brains, oxytocin, allows us to determine whom to trust. This knowledge is being used to understand the basis for modern civilizations and economies, for negotiating, and for treating patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. He has degrees in mathematics and economics from San Diego State University, a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania, and postdoctoral training in neuroimaging from Harvard.

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