TABLE S-1 High-Priority Opportunities for Army Investment in Neuroscience Technologies (Recommendation 14)

Technology Opportunity

ME

RE

Time Framea

Current Investment (L, M, or H)

Commercial

Academic

Field-deployable biomarkers of neural state

x

x

Ongoing

L

M

In-helmet EEG for brain–machine interface

x

x

Medium term

M

L

Signal processing and multimodal data fusion, including imaging modalities such as MRI, fMRI, DTI, DSI, PET, and MEG and physiological measures such as heartbeat, interbeat intervals, GSR, optical computer recognition, eye tracking, and pupilometry.

x

x

Ongoing

M

H

Soldier models and biomarkers for sleep

 

x

Ongoing

M

M

Vertical fMRI

 

x

Medium term

L

L

Fatigue prediction models

x

 

Medium term

L

M

Behavioral measures of fatigue

x

 

Medium term

M

L

Prospective biomarkers for predictive measures of soldier response to environmental stress, including hypoxic and thermal challenges

x

x

Medium term

L

L

NIRS/DOT

x

x

Medium term

L

L

Biomedical standards and models for head impact protection, including torso protection from blast

x

x

Medium term

M

M

Threat assessment augmentation

x

 

Medium term

M

M

fMRI paradigms of military interest

 

x

Ongoing

L

M

NOTE: ME, mission-enabling; RE, research-enabling; L/M/H, low, medium, or high; EEG, electroencephalography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; DTI, diffuse tensor imaging; DSI, diffusion spectrum imaging; PET, positron emission tomography; MEG, magnetoencephalography; NIRS, near-infrared spectroscopy; DOT, diffuse optical tomography; GSR, galvanic skin response.

aIn this column, “medium term” means between 5 and 10 years and “ongoing” means that results will be available within 5 years but continuing investment is recommended to stay at the forefront of the technology.

SOURCE: Committee-generated.

TABLE S-2 Priority Opportunities for Army Investment in Neuroscience Technologies (Recommendation 15)

Technology Opportunity

ME

RE

Time Framea

Current Investment (L, M, or H)

Commercial

Academic

Haptic feedback with VR

x

 

Medium term

H

L

Augmented reality (virtual overlay onto real world)

x

x

Medium term

H

H

In-helmet EEG for cognitive state detection and threat assessment

x

x

Medium term

L

M

Information workload management

x

 

Far term

L

M

Time-locked, in-magnet VR and monitoring for fMRI

 

x

Medium term

L

M

Immersive, in-magnet VR

 

x

Near term

L

M

EEG physiology

x

x

Far term

L

H

Uses of TMS for attention enhancement

 

x

Medium term

L

M

In-vehicle TMS deployment

x

 

Far term

L

L

Heartbeat variability

x

x

Near and medium term

L

H

Galvanic skin response

x

x

Near and medium term

H

L

NOTE: ME, mission-enabling; RE, research-enabling; L/M/H, low, medium, or high; VR, virtual reality; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation.

aIn this column, “near term” means within 5 years, “medium term” means between 5 and 10 years, and “far term” means 10-20 years.

SOURCE: Committee-generated.

of the study (5-20 years); however, R&D in a few areas of neuroscience might well have enough potential that the Army should assemble a group of experts charged with monitoring progress on multiple fronts.

In addition to the 15 recommendations that respond to points in the statement of task, the committee offers two overarching recommendations, 16 and 17, which it believes are essential if the Army is to engage the opportunities in neuroscience effectively. Recommendation 16 concerns the establishment of a mechanism to monitor advances in a wide range of neuroscience disciplines in order to stay abreast of new developments and select for further pursuit those most promising for Army applications. Recommendation 17 encourages the Army to examine how to use to its advantage



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