7
Neuroscience Technology Opportunities

Chapters 3 through 6 discussed neuroscience research leading to developments in key application areas of training, decision making, and performance, including recommendations on predominantly research-based opportunities. This chapter discusses high-risk, high-payoff opportunities for using neuroscience technologies in Army applications. Where the committee identified significant investments in a technology opportunity from nonmilitary federal, commercial, or foreign sectors, the leveraging opportunities for the Army are noted. A section on barriers to Army use of these technology opportunities describes important scientific and technical barriers. The concluding section presents the committee’s priorities—“high priority,” “priority,” and “possible future opportunities”—for Army investment.

A section on technology trends discusses several trends that the committee believes will endure and even grow in significance for Army applications. The Army should establish a mechanism to monitor these trends effectively and have a capability in place to evaluate the applicability of any resulting technology to Army needs and opportunities.

This chapter discusses many technologies and plausible areas of neuroscience research, including experiments that may be facilitated through the use of human subjects. The committee assumes that all such research will be conducted in accordance with the guidelines established in the Belmont Report and subsequent regulations issued by the Office of Human Research Protections of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

The report places technologies in two categories: those that result in “mission-enabling” instruments and those that result in “research-enabling” instruments. In some instances, a technology has applications in both categories. The word “instrument” is used in the most general sense: it could be a pen-and-paper personality inventory, a software-controlled skills survey, a reaction-time analysis method for training assessment, a control interlock system to distribute information among different vehicle crew based on their current workload and baseline cognitive capability, an in-helmet device designed to monitor neural activity or cerebral blood flow, or an advance in imaging technology. Both categories of technology share the common characteristic that neuroscience research, as defined in Chapter 2, plays a key role in their development.

Deployable instruments are technologies directly affecting performance, training, or military decision making. Enabling instruments fill gaps in current technology and allow neuroscientific examination (laboratory) or evaluation (training or battlefield) of soldier performance, training, or military decision making. The committee feels this distinction is vital, because it is not immediately clear, for example, whether miniaturized signal processing technology will open additional opportunities to use laboratory devices currently considered impractical. If that happened, the miniaturization of signal processing would be an enabling technology.

All neuroscience technologies have spatial and temporal resolutions that define the neurophysiological building blocks they can study. Twenty-five years ago, the vast majority of detailed in situ function of localized structures in the human brain was extrapolated from work on animals measured with electronic stopwatches, clipboards, and scalp surface electrodes or was inferred from correlation studies of injury/pathology using psychiatric examinations. The introduction of noninvasive technologies has expanded the breadth and depth of studies of normal human brain function and allowed the development of noninvasive neural measurement techniques to study the functioning human brain. Figure 7-1 shows how these new technologies can monitor or even predict performance anywhere in the spatiotemporal plane. (For discussion of the history and advancement of neuroscience research related to Army applications, see Chapter 2.)

MANAGING THE SOLDIER’S PHYSICAL LOAD

There are multiple research and development opportunities involving soldiers, such as extracting information



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7 Neuroscience Technology opportunities Chapters 3 through 6 discussed neuroscience research device designed to monitor neural activity or cerebral blood leading to developments in key application areas of train- flow, or an advance in imaging technology. Both categories ing, decision making, and performance, including recom- of technology share the common characteristic that neuro- mendations on predominantly research-based opportunities. science research, as defined in Chapter 2, plays a key role in This chapter discusses high-risk, high-payoff opportunities their development. for using neuroscience technologies in Army applications. Deployable instruments are technologies directly affect- Where the committee identified significant investments in ing performance, training, or military decision making. a technology opportunity from nonmilitary federal, com- Enabling instruments fill gaps in current technology and mercial, or foreign sectors, the leveraging opportunities for allow neuroscientific examination (laboratory) or evaluation the Army are noted. A section on barriers to Army use of (training or battlefield) of soldier performance, training, or these technology opportunities describes important scientific military decision making. The committee feels this distinc- and technical barriers. The concluding section presents the tion is vital, because it is not immediately clear, for example, committee’s priorities—“high priority,” “priority,” and “pos- whether miniaturized signal processing technology will open sible future opportunities”—for Army investment. additional opportunities to use laboratory devices currently A section on technology trends discusses several trends considered impractical. If that happened, the miniaturization that the committee believes will endure and even grow in sig- of signal processing would be an enabling technology. nificance for Army applications. The Army should establish All neuroscience technologies have spatial and tem- a mechanism to monitor these trends effectively and have a poral resolutions that define the neurophysiological build- capability in place to evaluate the applicability of any result- ing blocks they can study. Twenty-five years ago, the vast ing technology to Army needs and opportunities. majority of detailed in situ function of localized structures This chapter discusses many technologies and plausible in the human brain was extrapolated from work on animals areas of neuroscience research, including experiments that measured with electronic stopwatches, clipboards, and scalp may be facilitated through the use of human subjects. The surface electrodes or was inferred from correlation studies committee assumes that all such research will be conducted of injury/pathology using psychiatric examinations. The in accordance with the guidelines established in the Belmont introduction of noninvasive technologies has expanded the Report and subsequent regulations issued by the Office of breadth and depth of studies of normal human brain function Human Research Protections of the U.S. Department of and allowed the development of noninvasive neural mea- Health and Human Services. surement techniques to study the functioning human brain. The report places technologies in two categories: those Figure 7-1 shows how these new technologies can monitor that result in “mission-enabling” instruments and those that or even predict performance anywhere in the spatiotemporal result in “research-enabling” instruments. In some instances, plane. (For discussion of the history and advancement of a technology has applications in both categories. The word neuroscience research related to Army applications, see “instrument” is used in the most general sense: it could be a Chapter 2.) pen-and-paper personality inventory, a software-controlled skills survey, a reaction-time analysis method for training maNaGiNG The soldier’s Physical load assessment, a control interlock system to distribute infor- mation among different vehicle crew based on their current There are multiple research and development oppor- workload and baseline cognitive capability, an in-helmet tunities involving soldiers, such as extracting information 

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 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS FIGURE 7-1 Various noninvasive imaging technologies provide insight into the brain (anatomy) and mind (function). The spatial resolution of a given technology defines the largest and smallest brain structures that can be observed, while the temporal resolution defines the elements of mind function to be measured. Academic and commercial research is primarily geared to improving resolution, although important mea - surements for the prediction of behavior can be made at any point in the brain-mind plane. Shown are several of the technologies discussed in Chapter 7. SOURCE: Adapted from Genik et al., 2005. missioN-eNaBliNG TechNoloGies from the brain and nervous system, inferring neural states f rom physiological information, or designing control The Army has a basic requirement to process, distrib- strategies to alter or enhance neural states. Nevertheless, ute, and apply information efficiently. These requirements the committee recognizes that critical ergonomic con - will only increase with the demands of a network-centric siderations limit the added burden—particularly added environment. Better cognitive performance must be achieved weight—that neuroscience technologies can place on an if soldiers are to contend with an ever-increasing river of already overloaded soldier. Mission-enabling technolo - information. Solutions are needed to address demonstrated gies (including devices for sensing, power, and onboard operational requirements, such as avoidance of information computating) must be considered as part of the larger overload and successful synthesis of information that selec- system of a dismounted soldier’s equipment load, and tively highlights the mission-critical features from multiple they should not add appreciable weight or volume to the sources. The technologies described in this section apply helmet or backpack. A National Research Council study knowledge and techniques from neuroscience to help solve determined that any new device(s) should not add more these and related challenges in sustaining and improving than 1 kg to the helmet or 2 kg to the pack. More impor- soldier performance. tant, any helmet-mounted neuroscience technology should Mission-enabling (deployable) instruments or tech- not interfere with ballistic protection, helmet stability, or nologies of interest to the Army must be capable of being freedom of head movement (NRC, 1997). The committee scientifically validated and include brain–machine interface b elieves that these design and engineering constraints (BMI) technologies, remote physiological monitoring to must be considered from the outset to ensure successful extend performance in combat, and optimization of sensor- integration of a neuroscience technology with the soldier’s shooter responses under cognitive stress. BMI technology existing equipment load. examples include near-term extensions of current train -

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 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS ing applications of virtual reality (VR) systems, iconic or neural measures to provide near-real-time feedback about graphical information overlays on real-world visual displays, operator neural readiness. To develop such a tool, a top- and various approaches to monitoring neurophysiological down functional analysis should be conducted to determine stress signals to manage information overload, and the use which of the neural indicators available are meaningful of neural signals to control external systems. Several of the for different kinds of Army decision makers. For example, technologies discussed may not appear to the casual observer commanders on the battlefield could benefit from decision to be rooted in neuroscience research. Where a connection is support that alerts them in near real time to issues with per- not obvious, it will be explicitly stated or the neuroscience sonnel neural readiness, such as unexpectedly high levels of aspect outlined. fatigue or sleep-deprivation deficits in individuals or across units. Another class of decision makers that could benefit from readily accessible neural indexes would be medical Field-deployable Biomarkers of Neural state commanders, who could decide how to allocate medical The first issue in applying laboratory neuroscience resources in response to rapidly changing events. Early results to field operations is to find reliable indicators of versions of the monitoring system might find their initial neural state that can be used in the field (field-deployable bio- application in training, including advanced training for spe- markers). The equipment used in functional neuroimaging cialized tasks as well as basic training of recruits. laboratories is sensitive to movement of both the subject and The development of an operational neural health and metal objects near the subject as well as susceptible to inter- status monitoring system represents an important intersec- ference from proximal electronic devices: Such constraints tion of neuroscience and military operational applications, are antithetical to mission environments. One way to avoid since such a system could inform critical, time-pressured this difficulty is to identify reliable physiological surrogates decisions about near-real-time soldier status. As the reli- for the neural states of interest, surrogates that are easier to ability and range of neural state indicators grows, this could monitor in an operational environment. For example, alert- also incorporate predictive biomarkers to aid commanders ness in a driving environment can be reliably determined by in comparing alternative scenarios. For example, a deci- monitoring eyelid movement (Dinges et al., 1998). Neuronal sion support tool that could indicate the neural impact of state measurement is a primary topic in this chapter, but there extending troop deployments, in both the near term and the are many other physiological indicators that can be evaluated far, could help to determine troop rotations and to select for their reliability as biomarkers of functional brain states individuals or units for various activities. and behaviors. These include eeG-Based Brain–computer interfaces • Galvanic skin response (GSR); • Heartbeat, including rate and interbeat interval; One area of neuroscience technology that has received • Eye movements, including response times, gaze much attention in the mainstream media is the development latency, and stability; and use of EEG-based brain–computer interfaces. These • Pupilometry; interface systems have potential operational use in areas such • Low-channel-count electroencephalography (EEG); as remote, real-time physiological monitoring—for example, • Cortical changes in blood flow, measured using near- a battlefield commander could receive some indication that a infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); soldier is approaching maximum mental workload or stress. • Blood oxygen saturation (also using NIRS); and While such operational uses are possible, battlefield applica- • Facial expression as monitored by optical computer tions of these sensors as a neurotechnology are not likely to recognition (OCR) techniques. be realized in the next 10 years. Commercial developers of EEG-based interfaces, which Combinations of these and future physiological mea- target primarily applications in video gaming and in market- sures are also possible. The committee believes that physi- ing, generally claim that they can detect facial expressions, ological indicators as surrogates for neurological states or emotional states, and conscious intentions (Greene, 2007a). conditions can be useful even before our understanding of Their devices usually contain both the EEG sensors and the neurophysiological basis for the established correlation is machine-learning algorithms that require training for indi- complete. Therefore, the technology opportunities discussed vidual users. A handful of companies claim they will have here include the development and scientific validation of sur- brain–computer interface headsets commercially available rogate markers with research; to understand how they work in the very near future for gaming applications (Emotiv is of secondary importance. and NeuroSky are two such), and a similar number already One futuristic technology that should be developed in claim success with methodologies for consumer research parallel with work on individual physiologic indicators and (in neuromarketing research applications) (EmSense, Lucid surrogate markers is some kind of health and status monitor- Systems, and NeuroFocus are three such methodologies). ing tool for operational commanders that combines relevant One technological advance that commercial EEG-based

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 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS brain–computer interfaces have incorporated is the concept enhancement of human abilities (Tarr and Warren, 2002). of a dry electroencephalograph, which is an EEG device that Indeed, VR is becoming a familiar technique for simulating does not require the use of electrically conducting gel on the flight, shipboard seamanship and navigation, and tank and scalp. However, the capability of this technology has been armored vehicles. VR implementations are central to train- questioned, since a dry EEG device cannot produce as strong ing for the Future Combat Systems program. The nascent a signal as a traditional gel-based electroencephalograph Virtual Squad Training System is a wireless, wearable sys- (Greene, 2007b). tem that trains Army warfighters using simulated weapons Scientific proof of the claims for these brain–computer like the Army Tactical Missile System in a virtual combat interfaces is virtually nonexistent, and they have been heavily environment. criticized by academics (Nature, 2007; Greene, 2007b). The One area of VR that the Army has not yet exploited is the aforementioned companies have not published any scientific use of three-dimensional (3D) haptic interfaces. In general, a papers on their devices or methodologies, so the industry, as haptic interface provides cutaneous sensing and kinesthetic of now, is still extremely opaque. While the possible out- feedback to simulate the feel of physically manipulating comes could be relevant for the operational Army, the use of what are in fact virtual devices. Haptic interfaces not only EEG-based brain–computer interfaces to support real-time have training applications but also could be used for systems decision making should be considered basic research and such as those that teleoperate robots. funded accordingly. Furthermore, the headset technology The Army can leverage commercial-sector investments in demonstrated by companies such as Emotiv brings into ques- haptic interfaces. The current commercially available haptic- tion whether the primary signal that trains the interface is of sensing devices range from more extensive exoskeleton-based cortical origin or based on cranial muscle polarization. These force-reflecting systems (e.g., Immersion’s CyberForce) devices are therefore interesting as control interfaces to aug- costing tens of thousands of dollars, to smaller, personal- ment the number of devices a single soldier can control, but computer-based, electromechanical force feedback systems they probably do not qualify as a neuroscience technology (e.g., Novint’s Falcon) that retail for a few hundred dollars. opportunity. The larger force-reflecting systems could be useful in large One commercial application that could be more useful simulation-training environments such as the Virtual Squad to the Army in the near term is a neurofeedback system for Training System. The PC-based systems, which are much self-regulation. Neurofeedback, akin to biofeedback, allows smaller and less expensive, could be used for training during individuals to receive visual and aural feedback about their deployments. brainwave activity to promote self-regulation. This technique, which was developed in part through research sponsored by augmented reality Technologies the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been recommended as a therapeutic intervention for the Unlike VR, which seeks to replace the whole spectrum treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, traumatic of sensory and thus perceptual experience with a simulated brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression in experience, augmented reality (AR) is a hybrid technology children and adolescents (Hirshberg et al., 2005). in which a display of the natural world is intermixed with While neurofeedback systems are not going to be used information-rich virtual elements. A simple illustration of the for operational real-time decision making anytime soon, their basic approach is the display of information on, say, precipi - application in field settings could one day be of interest to the tation levels and wind intensity, derived from weather radar Army in ways that go beyond their obvious medical thera- data, overlaid on a photograph of the terrain. peutic benefits. CyberLearning Technology, LLC, which The principle of linkage is illustrated in the weather- has an exclusive license with NASA for its neurofeedback map example by physical observation: Does the online methods, connects its system directly with off-the-shelf image match ground conditions? The principle of scaling is video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and the illustrated by zooming in and out on the map: Time-locked Microsoft Xbox. Given the ubiquity of these game consoles weather patterns should stay constant over the same locations and personal computers in field settings, it may be possible to at all resolutions of an image. These weather depictions are leverage this technology in the near term for use by soldiers fairly accurate, but it is still not unheard of for an online map in the field. to inaccurately describe what is observed with a quick trip to the window. The first practical adaptation of AR for military use were haptic Feedback Technology for virtual reality “heads-up” displays in advanced fighter jets. These systems VR, a technology whose graphical base is driven by typically display on demand the status of the dynamics of advances in the gaming industry, is now a common tool the aircraft—including heading, altitude, and velocity— in behavioral neuroscience research and applications. Of surrounding a central “pitch ladder” that illustrates the atti- particular importance for the Army is the use of VR for tude of the aircraft itself. In most military aircraft displays, the study and modification of human behavior and for the the augmentation includes assisted targeting capabilities.

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8 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS Also, the display refers to the aircraft against a real-world information overlay on a trigger that provides cutaneous background. feedback when a weapon locks on a potential target and has For dismounted soldier applications, an AR display identified it as friend or foe. A soldier can be trained to set might use a head-mounted, “monocle” device such as was reflexive neurons in a state to pull the trigger without higher deployed in a 120-person study of a simulated search-and- neural involvement, decreasing the time between acquiring rescue operation (Goldiez et al., 2007). To conduct search- and engaging the target. Such reflexive neuron training is and-rescue operations in a building, team members must in use today for complex, force-feedback motions like the double-tap.1 Commercial AR applications include displays systematically clear an entire structure of possibly wounded compatriots and supply treatment if needed, while defend- with visual, aural, or haptic channels that can be used indi- ing against or removing possible threats. Such operations vidually or integrated. The type of heads-up visual display tax working memory, and substantial improvement can be used in military aviation is being adopted in commercial realized if mission elements requiring short-term memory industries such as trucking. The Army currently has a helmet- encoding can be off-loaded to mobile technology. In the mounted monocular display as part of its Land Warrior study cited, AR was employed to map a simulated building, program. However, the program has received mixed reviews which allowed participants to concentrate instead on tests of (Lowe, 2008). It is possible that a variation on commercial working memory such as locating mission-objective targets heads-up display technology might improve the quality and and planning for speedy exits. Similar applications subjected performance of current implementations. to more complex field testing will allow (1) smaller teams Commercial versions of visual AR include the Apple to complete the same missions, (2) teams to operate longer iPhone/iTouch system, which offers more intuitive and by shortening the time during which vigilance must be sus- fluid gesture-based interactions. These same gesture-based tained, (3) team members to share graphic information in real interactions can be seen in Microsoft Surface, a tabletop time, and (4) teams to succeed in their mission even if they interactive display that has recently become commercially are operating at less than optimal cognitive capacity, perhaps available and was notably employed in television coverage as a result of fatigue. of the 2008 presidential election. As an Army application, Recent terrestrial applications of AR have focus-linked tabletop displays are primarily suitable for high-level, sta- displays in which the augmentation (the information overlay) tionary command posts owing to their relatively high cost is spatially and temporally locked to some (usually geographi- and fragility. Combined with appropriate software such as cal) aspect on the focal plane of the ambient display. These map search, visual AR devices in both small field-deployable technologies have typically been used for way-finding and versions and larger stationary versions enhance situational similar forms of orientation assistance. Such applications must awareness very effectively. be able to adjust scale as the real-world display zooms in and Significant research has been done on enhancing deci- out and to lock on a real-world feature such that the display is sion making through use of an aural AR channel. Many constantly oriented correctly to a change in field of view. human factors studies have stressed the importance of prop- AR poses some interesting neuroscience questions. erly applying and integrating these aural systems. Innovative An important concern is the correspondence issue: How is signal-presentation approaches for aural AR include spatial the electronically generated information to be permanently audio (reproducing spatial depth relative to the listener); locked and scaled to the changing environment in which the ambient audio (either suppressing ambient noise or present- AR user finds himself or herself? What happens when a failure ing local, external audio signals for operators in collabora- of linkage produces a mismatch of either scale or orientation? tive environments who are required to wear headsets); and Spatial disorientation is a problem that has been explored continuous audio (mapping an alert condition to synthetically extensively in aerospace human factors studies. However, the produced continual signals such as virtual rumble strips). latencies involved in spatial transformations and rotations can Potentially useful Army applications include adaptation of lead to a condition often called “simulator sickness” (Shepard commercially available spatial audio headsets and speaker and Metzler, 1971; Shepard and Cooper, 1982). Whereas the systems that broadcast spatial audio in a group setting. The barrier to further advances in VR is largely insufficient com- latter could be useful in enclosed environments such as a putational capacity to generate the virtual world for the user, command and control vehicle (C2V). However, significant the comparable barrier to advances in AR is the difficulty of development work on the software would be required to integrating information and of achieving perceptual realism in adapt the hardware for Army use. the display. Large investments will be required to overcome Visteon has produced the only commercial proximity- these more complex issues, but AR will eventually prove to and touch-sensitive haptic controls. In these displays, which be a more powerful technology than VR for incorporating neuroscience advances. 1The double-tap is a combat pistol technique whereby the shooter sends a signal to the peripheral nervous system to pull the trigger on a semiautomatic Additional sensory inputs will certainly be developed pistol a second time once the trigger returns to a firing position. The second one day. Present technology for the senses other than vision trigger pull is actually occurring while the shooter is locating the next target is relatively rudimentary. A haptic simulation could include and assessing outcome using peripheral vision.

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9 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS have been used in automobiles, as the operator’s hand became evident during this ambitious but early technology approaches the display, it lights up and a software-activated development effort. button provides haptic feedback to the user’s touch, mim- Despite the stated goal of those closely associated icking the feel of a mechanical button being pushed, even with the AugCog program—that its technologies would be though the display is a flat screen. Potential uses for this tech- operational within 10 years—the likely horizon for an initial nology include the C2V and control stations for unmanned operating capability is much farther away. One major hurdle aerial vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles. is development of a wireless EEG device that is unobtrusive, does not require the use of conducting gel (known as “dry EEG”), and is able to process onboard signals, all while the information Workload management via Physiological and user is in motion and often under difficult environmental con- Neural Feedback (including augmented cognition) ditions, including electromagnetic interference. While some As noted earlier, neuroscience can help the soldier avoid advances have been made in wireless EEG and dry EEG information overload while helping with the cognitive tasks (see an earlier subsection on EEG-based brain–computer of synthesizing information and picking out mission-critical interfaces), the signals from these devices are substantially features. Examples of the latter include intelligence fusion weaker than signals from more traditional electroencephalo- and other forms of data interpretation to heighten situational graphs. Moreover, their ability to detect cognitive states for awareness. The use of such information processing with pre- use in predictive algorithms in dynamic, uncertain environ- sentation technology can enhance warfighter performance. ments has yet to be demonstrated and validated to the level Previous work by the military on this subject has dealt required of an operational system. narrowly with filter methods and technologies to rapidly The committee believes the Army should continue present the results to the soldier. funding research in information workload management with T he Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency a focus on hardware developments, including development (DARPA) Augmented Cognition program (the AugCog of surrogate indicators for laboratory-based indicators of p rogram), which formally ended in FY 2006, sought neural state, ruggedization of instruments for use in field t o augment human information-processing capabilities e nvironments, and advancement of associated signal- through the design of interfaces incorporating neuroscience processing efforts. Without advances in these areas, the technologies that enable the interface to adapt in real time laudable information workload management techniques of to the stress state of the user. Similar DARPA research AugCog cannot be operationalized. Substantial research continues under the rubric of Improving Warfighter Infor- and development will also be needed on predictive algo - mation Intake Under Stress. Army research along the rithms in dynamic, highly uncertain domains for open-loop AugCog path is continuing at the Natick Soldier Research, systems with noisy sensor data. This is an instance where Development and Engineering Center. Appendix D reviews the higher-level technology used to monitor for and ame - the phases of development work and testing under the liorate cognitive overload will depend on the successful AugCog program and the direction taken by Army follow- understanding of field-deployable indicators of neural state, on activities. Highlights of the AugCog effort are presented as discussed above. here to illustrate the approach taken and the implementation achieved to date. The term “information workload manage - Technologies to optimize sensor-shooter latency and ment” refers to managing the presentation of information to Target discrimination sustain and enhance cognitive processing capability when the emotional-cognitive evidence indicates an individual Another important Army concept applicable to a range may be reaching an overload condition. This information of tactical combat situations is known as the sensor-shooter monitoring may feed back into an adaptive interface, as in paradigm. The latency in sensor-to-shooter responsiveness is the AugCog concepts, or, less ambitiously, it may trigger measured by the time needed to recognize a specific threat some type of warning signal to the user—for example, as from its first appearance, to select the appropriate course part of an AR display. of action to neutralize that threat, and to respond with the The original goal of the AugCog program—to enhance correct action. All other factors being equal, the lower information workload management through technologies that latency from sensor to shooter will increase the efficiency monitor indicators of cognitive state—is even more relevant of the sensor-shooter response. An equally important (or in now as the Department of Defense (DOD) moves toward some circumstances, more important) measure of response network-centric warfare. However, while the researchers efficiency is target discrimination, which requires correct involved with the AugCog milestones made progress in recognition of the threat with the fewest possible false nega- terms of hardware and software advances, their results were tives or false positives. The sensor-shooter should neither preliminary, as one would expect. More important, perhaps, fail to recognize a threat (the foe) nor mistake a nonthreat is the lesson that the original objectives of that program (a friend or neutral actor) for a threat. Thus, improving are not achievable in the near term because of barriers that sensor-shooter response efficiency requires optimizing the

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80 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS combination of a short latency period with a very high degree a smart display could alert a patrolling soldier of change in of target discrimination. the coming roadway scene, which could signal the presence Complicating sensor-shooter efficiency is that one of an IED. Such an augmented display could be programmed should not aim to minimize latency in a tactical vacuum to scale these threats, e.g., pedestrian versus large-scale devoid of appropriate strategic considerations. Strategy objects, to allow for a degree of preprocessed threat assess- often involves longer-term goals for which a faster response ment. Biometric technologies capable of identifying specific (slower latency) is not necessarily better (Scales, 2006). The individuals from a distance while supporting persistent visual threat analysis technology that needs to interface with the monitoring of the environment will extend the amount of soldier operationally requires strategic as well as tactical time available for a soldier to integrate fused data rather than input and the ability to communicate both sets of information collect and sort information, thereby increasing processing to the soldier so that he can make a decision. efficiency and reducing the likelihood of error. Furthermore, the real-world scenarios to which the sensor-shooter paradigm applies often subject the soldier Simulation Technologies to Enhance to stresses such as fatigue, sleep deprivation, information Intuitive Decision-Making Skill overload, and cognitive overload (Harris et al., 2005). Just the addition of a simple secondary cognitive task to be performed Chapter 4 discussed decision making as it applies during a complex primary task will degrade performance of (primarily) to command-level decisions. Decision-making the primary task by an already overloaded individual from theory also provides useful insights into how simulation tech- his or her baseline (Hancock and Warm, 1989). Technologies nologies can be used to help the sensor-shooter through the informed by neuroscience can boost the individual soldier’s concept of intuitive decision making. The concept assumes performance in sensor-shooter activities. The committee that the decision maker has a high level of situational aware- focused on two ways to support the sensor-shooter in dif- ness. The simulations described in Chapter 5 that enable ficult circumstances: devices to augment threat assessment military leaders to accumulate life experiences that improve and virtual simulation technologies to enhance intuitive their intuitive decision-making skills can also be used to decision making. The third aspect of the sensor-shooter develop sensor-shooter training. Such simulations could be paradigm, motor execution of the action decided upon, is an designed to adapt and respond to soldiers in an intelligent important research opportunity for the Army. It is discussed manner and portray cognitively, culturally, and intellectually in Chapter 8. accurate and challenging scenarios that identify, develop, i mprove, and assess these skills. Increasingly, human factors—the cognitive, cultural, and intellectual aspects of Threat Assessment Augmentation Aids human conflict—are the main determinants of success on the It is clear that technology can be brought to bear on battlefield (Scales, 2006). threat recognition. A number of devices are already used to A soldier–simulator interface that elicits personal inter- support this function. Mainly they confer visual enhance- action could lead to a self-referent memory approach by ment expressed on distal screens, on head-mounted displays the trainee, increasing the accuracy of an individual’s recall that present a totally synthetic vision of the kind seen in VR, when a similar situation is faced again (Rogers et al., 1977). or on hybrid displays of the AR kind, including real-scale or This type of interaction with the simulator would be based telescopic capability, and overlaying relevant information on the theory of recognition-primed decision making (Klein, from sources spanning the electromagnetic spectrum. These 1989), and if the interaction is properly exploited with well- integrated displays attempt to replicate the perceived envi- designed interfaces will lead to perceptual learning in the ronment in some fashion. More sophisticated augmentation areas of attentional weighting, stimulus imprinting, differen- techniques can begin to replicate the capacity of the visual tiation, and unitization (Goldstone, 1998). A well-designed system of the eye and brain to focus on specific characteris- decision-making simulator could enable soldiers who will tics such as novelty, intensity, and context-driven importance. have to function in demanding sensor-shooter roles to learn Such smart augmentation aids can help the observer focus using scenarios that provide life experiences, bloodlessly. on critical information. Finally, as discussed in Chapter 4, recent advances As an example, consider the problem of detecting a in neuroimaging enable researchers to follow the spatial recently emplaced improvised explosive device (IED) along pathways and temporal patterns of expert decision makers. a transportation corridor. One of the primary signals of For example, the detection of potential threats as revealed threat is a change in the morphology or presence of roadside in VR displays appears to involve the amygdala and related objects. Modern technology is very efficient at detecting a brain regions. While most of the new information and cor- change in the scene if the only object in a field that changes relations have been achieved in the laboratory environment, shape or appearance is an IED. If the roadside litter in a field new lightweight, portable technologies that take the place of of view has also changed during the same time interval, how- functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magneto- ever, detection may be markedly degraded. In the best case, encephalography (MEG) to detect loss of decision-making

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8 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS capability would enhance operational skills and survival on calcium imaging. The advantage of the invasive methods the battlefield. These new technologies are expected to be of is that they provide the most direct information about the greatest benefit in High OpTempo2 environments (continu- functioning of specific brain regions on a very fast timescale. ous operation for of 12-36 hours). This is another example The disadvantage is that they frequently require surgery and where research and development work on field-deployable sometimes cannot be used in humans. Noninvasive methods sensors to indicate neural state is essential for achieving a include EEG, MEG, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), dif- more advanced state of neuroscience-based technology. fusion tensor imaging (DTI), fMRI, GSR, electromyography, and electrooculography. Noninvasive recording techniques have the advantage research-eNaBliNG TechNoloGies of not requiring an invasive procedure to place the recording Several of the mission-enabling technologies in the apparatus. However, they frequently require a tremendous preceding section require for their further development a amount of additional hardware and infrastructure to col- fuller understanding of common neurophysiological pat- lect the information. In addition, noninvasive procedures terns in human behavior. Research-enabling technologies generally allow high resolution on the temporal scale at the are also needed to develop tools to study and assess underly- cost of less resolution on the spatial scale or vice versa. The ing aspects of performance such as ground-truth workload disadvantage of noninvasive recording techniques is that the and attention to detail. The advances made with research- information they collect is often indirect and less specific. enabling technologies will be deployed with soldiers on a The first conceptual issue surrounding the processing of limited basis, or used in training, simulations, or laboratory signals is our limited understanding, for each of the invasive environments. Some of the mission-enabling technology modalities, of what information the signals are providing described in the previous section will also find uses in the about neural activity in a specific brain region and the rela- research environment. tion between that activity and specific physiological changes Investment in research-enabling technology is crucial and/or behaviors. Addressing this issue requires executing for adapting current technology to Army applications, as specific experiments and developing specific techniques. well as for advancing to future generations of Army appli- Research in neuroscience has not completely answered cations. Such technology might also help the Army conduct the challenging signal processing questions that must be scientifically rigorous validation and testing for emerging answered if the data from invasive monitoring modalities are mission-enabling technology. Some of the opportunities to be used efficiently. Among these questions are the follow- simply involve bridging gaps in technology—for instance, ing: To which aspects of a stimulus does a neuron respond? the ability to use fMRI and concomitant eye tracking across How do groups of neurons represent information about a a wide visual angle. In this section the committee discusses biological signal (a movement command, a memory, a sound signal processing challenges, control strategies for BMIs, or light input) in their ensemble spiking activity? How can fatigue and sleep models for soldiers, advances in functional the plasticity in single neurons and ensemble representations paradigm technology, adapting laboratory neuroimaging of information be tracked reliably across time? How should technologies for use in the field, and data fusion. The com- algorithms be devised to process the activity of large num- mittee also touches briefly on the science of connectonomics. bers of neurons in real time? What sort of signal processing It looks at the development of a few pieces of hardware and and biophysical information should be used to optimally fuse imaging methodologies that could dramatically advance information from different types of recording techniques? several basic science techniques. The second conceptual issue is the extent to which brain activity from invasive measurements can be related to brain activity inferred from noninvasive measurements. If the signal Processing challenges relationship is strong, the noninvasive technique might be an At present the methods for extracting information from adequate stand-in for the invasive technique and could lead to the brain and nervous system can be divided into two cat- application as a field-deployable surrogate biomarker. If the egories: invasive and noninvasive. Invasive methods include relationship is weak, certain types of brain information may multielectrode recordings, local field potentials (lfp’s), and not be accessible by noninvasive means. These observations point to the need for simultaneously conducting invasive and noninvasive recordings in order to understand the relation 2High operations tempo (OpTempo) refers to missions carried out as between the two. quickly and fully as feasible, to apply overwhelming force in a time frame For example, EEG is the simplest and perhaps the such that opposing forces are unable to respond and counter effectively. By most widely used noninvasive neural recording technology. their nature, High OpTempo missions are characterized by high levels of Although EEG has been used for nearly 80 years to study psychological and physical stress, including constant awareness of mortal danger and potential for mission failure, combined with heavy decision- brain function dynamically, how it works is not completely making loads. When High OpTempo is combined with sustained operations understood. Much of the use of EEG signals still depends (SUSOPS) (missions lasting longer than 12 hours before resupply), cogni - on heuristic associations. The fundamental questions here tive capabilities are easily overtaxed and prone to degradation or failure.

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82 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS are, What does an electroencephalogram mean? What is to enhance performance and improve therapies depends criti- the biophysical mechanism underlying its generation? To cally on the signal-processing methods used to extract that what extent can it give us reliable information about both information. neocortical and subcortical activity? Studies that combine All of the popular noninvasive methods for measuring EEG and invasive electrophysiological recordings in specific neural states in humans have unanswered questions con- brain regions will be required to answer these questions. cerning their underlying neurophysiology. Although one MEG is used less often than EEG, but similar questions can can certainly glean useful methodology without probing be asked about it. deeply, fundamental questions remain. If research answers In the last decade and a half, fMRI has become the them, more applications and measurement techniques may fundamental tool in many fields of neuroscience. The basic open up, including, eventually, field-deployable indicators question—How do changes in neural activity relate to the of neural state. changes in local blood flow and local blood volume that are necessary to produce the fMRI image?—is only begin- Fatigue and sleep models for soldiers ning to be answered (Schummers et al., 2008). Similar fundamental biophysics questions about DOT have yet to Chapter 5 talks in detail about fatigue and sleep research, be answered. In addition, when it is possible to combine as well as mitigation strategies. Two important technologies a high-temporal-resolution technique such as EEG with a enabling the performance-sustaining research discussed in high-spatial-resolution technique such as fMRI, what is the these areas are (1) the computational models for predicting optimal strategy for combining the information they gener- behavior and (2) the physical models for transferring results ate? This example illustrates that simultaneously recording to the appropriate warfighter population. using two or more noninvasive methods can also be mutually The computational model used is a vector of parameters informative. important for sleep or fatigue, and inputs calibrated to a The third conceptual issue is that the ability to analyze specific individual soldier. The additional strategies the behavior and performance quantitatively is essential to officers employ in the field—naps, nutritional supplements, understanding the role of the brain and the nervous system etc.—should be included in the model, and it should account in their guiding function. Some typical measures of perfor- for the difference between an academic research subject used mance include reaction time, GSR, heartbeat dynamics, local to construct a model and a soldier. neurochemistry, and quantitative/objective measures of pain Ideally, the physical model used in research would be an and nociception.3 actual soldier in the state of readiness expected at the start In most behavioral neuroscience investigations perfor- of a mission. However, the multitude of research variables mance is measured along with neural activity using one of that must be tested necessitates using an ordinary civilian to the invasive or noninvasive methods. These investigations are stand in for the soldier. Chapter 3 described an opportunity crucial for linking neural activity in specific brain regions to leverage research using high-performance athletes. In an w ith overtly observable measures of performance and academic setting, it would be preferable to use persons from physiological state. Often the analyses of these performance a university community for most of the studies and reserve measures are quite superficial and not very quantitative. For actual soldiers for experimental runs once the paradigms are example, reaction times are simply plotted rather than ana- well understood and being tested for validity. lyzed with formal statistical methods. Similarly, GSR and Research in the area of fatigue might also include a sys- heartbeat dynamics are directly observable measures of the tematic study of the differences between cognitive fatigue, brain’s autonomic control system. Such signals are rarely if physical fatigue, and fatigue, including environmental stress, ever analyzed as such. fMRI studies are beginning to help from hypoxic or thermal challenges; biomarkers predictive us better understand the processing of pain and the signals of a soldier’s susceptibility to fatigue under extreme envi- from the body’s pain receptors (nocioceptor signals). For this ronmental conditions; and behavioral measures of fatigue work to translate into techniques that can be used to aid the to advance screening and testing procedures for soldier military, quantitative measures of pain and nociceptor stimuli assessment. must be developed. The fourth signal processing issue is being able to Functional mri and hardware to support properly fuse information from different sources, whether fmri research on army applications invasive or noninvasive, and the fifth issue surrounding signal processing is the challenge of rapid and (ideally) real-time Functional MRI is detailed in Chapter 2. Technology visualization and analysis. In short, the ability to effectively associated with fMRI for use in clinical health care is use information collected from the brain and nervous system receiving sufficient investment from industry. However, clinical applications require only medium spatial resolution (3-4 mm) and low temporal resolution (tens of seconds). 3Nociception is the physiological perception of a potentially injurious These resolutions are usually sufficient for a clinical deter- stimulus.

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8 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS mination of whether a major circuit in the brain is function - imaging systems would cost $10 million to $20 million for ing normally; however, they are inadequate for measuring the first 5 years of operation and, nominally, $2 million per neural responses to instantaneous events in rapid succession, year thereafter. Collaboration with external partners could among other research paradigms.4 Academic research labo- reduce the Army investment. If the first such machine proves ratories, funded mainly by the National Institutes of Health, useful for Army applications, additional machines should possess fMRI technology that is superior to the equipment cost substantially less. available commercially (~2-mm and 1-sec resolutions for The main risk in this investment is that the study results whole human head scans). This improved spatiotemporal may show there is no additional information to be gleaned resolution is primarily achieved through use of advanced for Army applications by examining subjects sitting or imaging electronics, such as parallel signal receiver channels standing rather than lying supine. Although such a result rather than an exclusive concentration on ever-increasing cannot be ruled out before the requisite testing is done, it static field strength. Cutting-edge laboratories have advanced would contradict current research on perceptual differences measurement techniques that are a vast improvement over observed in nonhuman primates. Mitigating this risk is that c onventional imaging, but even typical facilities have measurements are not expected to be any worse than with a commercial off-the-shelf5 system; however, the custom sys- invested in excess of $10 million for equipment and facilities, an investment that could be leveraged by the Army for the tem is not expected to be a versatile clinical machine. evolutionary application of current technology. The Army Moreover, the majority of research paradigms in fMRI needs to monitor advances in existing facilities and consider are static, meaning that stimulation is planned out entirely ways to utilize them. before the experiment. A small number of laboratories Some areas of research could be of great value for have produced technology that allows for feedback based Army applications but are not being addressed by industry on subject responses or physiological reactions that helps or academia because they have little if any potential for determine the subject stimulation in real time. This real-time use in the clinical market. These areas are likely to require technology would allow basic research into neural function Army investment to achieve sufficient understanding to in more naturalistic environments. Pioneering research in this adapt results from laboratory environments to the field. field is being carried out at the Army’s Institute for Creative Technologies.6 The goal here is to continue such research and They include vertical-bore MRI; full-motion, interactive stimulation; wide-angle, immersive visual stimulation; and offer more naturalistic environments for research paradigms. high-temporal-precision stimulation and monitoring. A real-time system should be able to log the time at which Currently, all fMRI research is done with the subject a stimulation occurred or a response was made, including lying down. There are physiological and perceptual differ- eye movements, with an accuracy of less than 1 msec and a ences between horizontal and vertical orientation. To deter- precision of 500 µsec. This software environment should be mine whether and to what extent supine-orientation fMRI is deployable to neuroimaging centers doing Army research, applicable to field situations, the least that must be done is to requiring relatively small amounts of hardware ($200,000 conduct experiments with the subject sitting up or, possibly, for research quality and of $50,000 for clinical quality) standing. Subjecting participants to heat, humidity, smells, and local technical support. The committee notes that this and other such stimulants encountered in combat situations advance in real-time, interactive paradigms for neuroscience will also be required. This necessary work will require research should be developed with a vertical fMRI capability designing and building a specialized MRI machine, with its but would also be applicable to the development of standard supporting laboratory, that is capable of scanning subjects in supine-oriented machines. the vertical position while also exposing them to relatively The Army should also support development of extended- rapid environmental changes. range visual stimulation hardware that is closer to combat Developing such an fMRI system is likely to entail an conditions and also MRI-compatible. The hardware currently investment horizon of at least 5-10 years. One company available for fMRI includes wide-angle immersive visual (Fonar) produces vertical MRI machines for humans, but stimulation and high-frequency presentation, but the current state of the art is ±15 degrees of nominal center (Cambridge these machines are primarily for orthopedic imaging rather Research is using ±45 degrees but has not yet publicly than brain imaging and lack the high temporal resolution needed for Army-relevant research. At least one Army appli- demonstrated the capability), and peripheral stimulation standards normally exceed ±40 degrees of center. cation laboratory would be required. The committee estimates that setting up a facility to perform vertical fMRI at 3 T or more using state-of-the-art 4 This information comes from two installed software packages 5Examples of such systems would be research scanners made by the three (BrainWave, GE; and Neuro 3D, Siemens) and from discussions with main commercial vendors: Siemens, General Electric, or Philips. 6Jonathan Gratch, Institute for Creative Technologies, University of company representatives attending the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America about what is expected to be released in the next Southern California, “The Neuroscience of Virtual Humans,” presentation few years. to the committee on February 13, 2008.

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8 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS Additionally, 60 Hz is the standard display rate for for field deployment are NIRS/DOT, EEG, and transcranial research, with some optional displays claiming 100 Hz.7 magnetic stimulation (TMS). The video gaming industry’s top-of-the-line displays are There are a number of approaches to portable, field- five times faster (500 Hz). It is unlikely that 500-Hz dis- usable application of fMRI-based neuroscience research: plays would be required for fMRI research in the next 5 or • Direct measurement of BOLD responses in the 10 years as long as the screen refresh time is known to the submillisecond standard. brain, • Direct measurement of the neuronal firing that caused Finally, eye-monitoring hardware that tracks gaze also mainly exists in the 60-Hz world. In order to correct reaction the BOLD response, • Suppression of unwanted brain activation, and times for eye movements, cameras sampling at 1000 Hz and • Enhancement of desired brain activation. above will perform the best. State-of-the-art hardware for investigating behavior provides 1250-Hz sampling rates; however, these cameras are not intrinsically MRI-compatible. The committee projects that none of these approaches will be The high-speed solution is to utilize a limbus tracker,8 which practical before the far term at the soonest. However, break- can sample as high as 10 kHz but has neither the angular throughs happen, and all of them could have great impacts resolution of a high-speed camera nor complete pupilometry in the future and deserve to be monitored or even considered capability. Additionally, even high-sampling-rate equipment for some initial pilot funding. has latency due to its USB PC interface, giving an overall BOLD responses could be measured directly with in- synchronization uncertainty of 8 msec (ideally it should be helmet NIRS/DOT detectors. NIRS/DOT can detect the negligible). The various components of these eye-tracking dynamic changes of any spectroscopically active molecule. systems exist at separate facilities, but engineering them all Single- or dual-wavelength techniques are usually employed into a standardized setup for Army applications research to track blood flow in the brain, providing a crude monitor of would be a worthy investment. the BOLD effect. Further development of these techniques over the next 10-20 years will lead to portable systems to take advantage of results of basic brain research in the intervening Transferring laboratory Neuroimaging Technologies to years. Measuring neuronal firing in the field is a long-term Field applications in the Far Term goal no matter if it will be achieved with a few sensors or with The gold standard in functional neuroimaging is currently a several-hundred-channel electrical imaging system. fMRI. Details of this technology are introduced in Chapter 2. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) is a marketing term to To summarize: fMRI indirectly measures neuronal activity by describe the marriage of traditional EEG with the digital watching changes in local blood flow around active neurons recording and analysis of signals. The nomenclature change through the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) effect. is promoted mostly in legal circles to add weight to expert BOLD changes can also be observed by NIRS—also known testimony in civil tort proceedings or criminal defenses (“my as diffuse optical tomography (DOT)—detectors, though at brain made me do it”), as well as alternative medicine circles a lower resolution. The underlying neuronal activation may that use biofeedback to treat physiological ailments. Most of also be observed at low resolution noninvasively with EEG the claims for qEEG (sometimes labeled rEEG) are suspect; or MEG. The committee expects that field-deployable fMRI however, there is solid science behind the decades of analyz- technology will not be available for at least 20 years. Accord- ing the signals detected by transient EEG, and this area of ingly, results from the high-resolution fMRI laboratory neuroscience research is well worth monitoring. experiments will need to be translated to field monitoring If research into the real-time processing of transient applications through the use of surrogate markers well- EEG ever reveals something of value, then a deployable in- correlated with the fMRI results. The most likely candidates helmet EEG detector would need to be available. Immediate uses for data on general sleep and fatigue are envisioned that would justify deploying existing EEG equipment long 7In liquid crystal display technology, unlike with the older cathode ray before a high-sampling-rate, 100-channel system is needed. tube (CRT) displays, merely pumping up the input video frequency does A portable monitor was demonstrated at the 2008 annual not result in faster displays. The liquid crystal elements have a limit to their meeting of the organization for Human Brain Mapping.9 on-off transition time—typically 15-20 msec for a standard desktop. This transition time explains why flat-panel displays do not flicker like CRTs and A field-deployable EEG detector system has in fact been therefore cause less eyestrain. Top-of-the-line gaming displays can transi - developed and should be tested in the field. The 5-year goal tion in as little as 2 msec, providing a true 500-Hz refresh. is the recording of a half-dozen channels with the subject 8A limbus tracker illuminates the eye with infrared light (IR) and uses a jogging on a treadmill, and the 10-year goal is producing a single photodiode to collect the IR reflection. The motion of the edges of pupil and iris induce changes in the total reflected IR intensity. Standard eye trackers use a camera to transmit IR video of the pupil, iris, and sclera, 9This was the 14th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain which is processed using image analysis software. Limbus trackers are good at detecting any motion of the eye but do not provide any directional Mapping (Melbourne, Australia, June 15-19, 2008). The meeting informa - or absolute gaze information. tion is documented at http://www.hbm2008.com.

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8 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS system that can be used in real-time training and assessment very high temporal resolution of BOLD signals and can exercises. calibrate individual BOLD characteristics. This technique, Unwanted brain signals can be temporarily suppressed termed inverse magnetic resonance imaging, could be very by noninvasive means in the laboratory using TMS. TMS valuable in understanding fundamental brain activity (Lin uses high-frequency magnetic fields to block the functioning et al., 2008). of target neuronal structures, in essence jamming the func- An emerging imaging technology known as DTI is an tional ability of a brain region. Two aspects of this technol- enabling technology for a new field known as connectomics, ogy need to be worked on: targeting smaller areas to lessen t he study of the brain’s neural pathways for informa- the side effects and making the technology deployable in a tion transfer. The name derives from the concept of the vehicle or helmet. Additionally, much research is required human connectome—the entire collection (body) of neural to learn which brain signals should be blocked and under connections—in much the same way as the entire collec- what circumstances. Finally, there has been little research on tion of genes is termed the human genome. (See Box 5-3 in the long-term impact of multiple TMS exposures on brain Chapter 5.) Connectomics is an area of basic neuroscience circuitry, leaving significant ethical concerns about exposing research with tremendous potential to enable the understand- healthy humans to this technology over long periods. ing of brain function, and DTI may have potential for future Enhancing desirable brain networks is usually accom- Army research. plished with neuropharmacology, as discussed in Chapter 5. The Army should also monitor research on atomic Additionally, it is possible that TMS can be employed to magnetometers for its potential to contribute to portable and enhance rather than suppress activation. One recent study rugged MRI (Bourzac, 2008). Atomic magnetometers may showed enhancement of top-down visuospatial attention prove of great importance to MEG, and MEG imaging is the using combined fMRI/TMS stimulation (Blankenburg et basis for inverse MRI, which will need to be developed for al., 2008). The ability to target smaller areas is an objec- ultraportable (less than 20 pounds) MRI scanners. However, tive sought by the TMS research community in general, putting 100,000 sensors around a soldier’s head does not but making such a device deployable in the field would make much sense unless you can deal with all of the sensor require Army investment. Making this technology available information in real time. Although this technology cannot in-vehicle is achievable in the medium term. The commit- support Army applications until the signal processing issues tee believes that in-helmet TMS technology would not be a outlined in a previous subsection have been addressed, the useful investment until definitive applications, enhancing or committee views the area as a future opportunity. inhibiting, are identified in the laboratory. Implantation of deep-brain stimulators has been researched optimal control strategies for Brain–machine interfaces for use in Parkinson’s, epilepsy, and obsessive-compulsive disorder for both suppression and enhancement of neuronal One far-term technology opportunity will require a activation. Study of such an invasive technology should be great deal of technique development and experimentation— limited to the treatment of similar disorders in soldiers. namely, the extension of current control theory and control Finally, although it is unlikely that a portable fMRI for technology to optimal strategies for controlling an external detecting BOLD can be developed in the next 20 years, a low- system through signal communication only (an information field, combined fMRI/MEG approach that would measure interface) between the brain and the external system’s control both direct neuronal currents and BOLD fluctuations could input and feedback subsystems. The natural way our brains produce a soldier-wearable system. Initial laboratory experi- control an external system is through efferent peripheral ments with fMRI/MEG (McDermott et al., 2004; Kraus et connections to muscles, where the information signal is al., 2007) indicate some feasibility, although it will require transduced through a motor response; for example, we turn a substantial technology development and breakthroughs in wheel, step on a pedal, press buttons, move a joystick, utter a both ultralow magnetic field detection and signal capture vocal command, or type a command to a software subsystem in electromagnetically noisy environments. The committee on a keyboard. The external system provides feedback to concluded that such developments are equally unlikely in the the controller-brain in the form of sensory stimuli: visual next 20 years. However, the fMRI/MEG approach should be information, proprioceptive inputs, auditory signals, etc. In a monitored, as it is already being supported by the National BMI, control signals from the brain are identified and trans- Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy despite mitted by a decoding subsystem, which communicates the the risky prospects for the technology. signal to the external system’s control input interface. In addi- An interesting outgrowth of the low-field fMRI/MEG tion to the customary range of feedback cues via peripheral direct neuronal firing work is a high-field application of sensory stimuli, the external system could in principle send the same method using the parallel acquisition mode of an feedback signals to the brain through stimulation channels. advanced brain imaging coil. The principle here is detection In this sense of information transmission between the of stimulated magnetic resonance relaxation at very fast controller-brain and the controlled external system, a BMI repetition times: up to 100 frames per second. This allows can use either invasive or noninvasive technologies for con-

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8 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS trol signal monitoring and (possibly) feedback stimulation. There are several challenges for technology develop- (See the discussion of invasive and noninvasive monitoring ment in designing brain–machine interfaces for upper-limb methods in the subsection on signal processing above.) prosthetics using cortical control. One is to design implants Invasive control and feedback methods are most relevant to that ensure longevity of recording, ideally for the lifetime technological aids to recover normal function lost through an of the individual. Current implants typically last only a year accident, disease, or combat, and should, for ethical reasons, or so; however, some implants have lasted for a number remain restricted to such applications, which would include of years. Understanding biocompatibility and durability advanced prosthetic limbs and, perhaps, alternatives to a and other factors that affect the longevity of implants is an limb such as a directly controlled wheelchair or a reaching- important area of research. A second developmental chal- grasping device. In the context of this report, however, the lenge is the integration of electronics with electrodes. Ideally types of external systems to be controlled are not prostheses the substrate of the electrodes should be metal leads on a sili- but the kinds of systems a soldier would normally control con substrate. This type of electrode can easily be integrated by efferent motor responses: a vehicle, a UAV or UGV, or as a single unit with integrated circuit electronics. an information-processing system/subsystem (i.e., a com- A third challenge is to make the electrodes movable—that puter or a microprocessor-based information node). For such is, able to automatically search out cells for optimal record- systems, noninvasive (as opposed to invasive) control and ing and move to new cells when cells are lost. A fourth chal- feedback methods are, for the foreseeable future, the only lenge is the use of local field potentials and spikes to improve practical and ethical options. recording decodes, particularly for determining behavioral The entire field of BMIs is at an early stage of under- states and transitions between them. Fifth, implantable elec - standing. For example, we are just beginning to learn about tronics need to be developed that allow on-board processing the incredible potential offered by the plasticity of even a and decoding of neural signals and wireless transmission of mature adult brain. There is much that will need to be learned the signals to controllers within the prosthetic limb. Finally, from the current and continuing work on invasive methods limb robotic technologies need to be advanced to achieve for prostheses before we can even think about the longer- lightweight limbs that can generate forces similar to those in term challenge of embedding BMIs. natural limbs and with power sources that can last for long periods of time before recharging. Given all of the challenges and the delicate nature of Advanced Upper-Limb Prosthetics direct neural connection technology, it is unlikely that the With improvements in battlefield medicine, many more interfaces could be made battlefield robust in the foreseeable soldiers than in previous wars are now surviving serious future. Invasive technology is currently utilized in medical injury. Many of these injuries involve loss of an upper limb prosthetics, including direct brain connections such as multi- or of multiple limbs. While leg prosthetics have been very channel cochlear implants to replace the sense of hearing. successful, the prosthetics for an upper limb, which has These direct connections are able to capture and generate over 20 degrees of freedom, are a much greater challenge. individual neuronal currents, as well as monitor or induce Current versions of upper limb prosthetics, which use coherent neural activity at much greater signal-to-noise electromyography activity to control the limb, have limited ratio than noninvasive technology. The invasive technologies degrees of freedom, are difficult to control, and are very should therefore be considered the best possible case of both heavy, expensive, and uncomfortable. Indeed, patients often signal detection and interface complexity for what could be abandon these complex prosthetic limbs for simpler and achieved via noninvasive technologies. These medical appli- more rudimentary limbs. cations are therefore important for the Army to monitor as a An exciting long-term goal for Army medical research guide for what may be possible noninvasively. is to develop upper-limb prosthetics that are neurally con- trolled. The two most promising approaches for the limb Other Prosthetics Applications with Relevance to control (efferent) and sensory feedback (afferent) interface Brain–Machine Interfaces with the nervous system are connection to the peripheral nerves or directly to the cerebral cortex. The peripheral nerve In addition to BMI systems to facilitate recovery of approach involves recording signals from the stumps of the motor function, other prosthetic devices are on the horizon. severed nerves to control the prosthetic limb. The cortical These include devices that carry out deep brain stimula- approach requires a direct BMI that records the signals tion to improve cognitive function and arousal state and derived from activity in the motor and sensory-motor areas to treat depression. There has also been work recently on of the cortex involved in forming movement intentions. Both central auditory neural prostheses that stimulate the inferior approaches require not only “reading out” the movement colliculus and visual neural prostheses using stimulation intention (efferent signaling) of the subject but also a means in the retina or lateral geniculate nucleus. In most of these of sensory feedback (afferent signaling), which is essential cases, research has demonstrated the feasibility of devices for dexterous control. either stimulating a given brain region or using information

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8 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS TreNds iN NeuroscieNce TechNoloGy from a particular brain region. A fundamental question must be answered: What are the optimal control strategies that The committee identified several trends in neuroscience allow a prosthetic device to interface in the most efficient and technology that the Army should monitor for application physiologically sound way with its human user? As a simple to its needs. Advances in neuroscience technology and illustration, most deep-brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s methodology are occurring at an extraordinary rate, and disease is carried out by applying a current once the stimula- extraordinary measures are needed to keep abreast of devel- tor is implanted. Given what we know about neural responses opments in the field. The committee identified trends in six and, in particular, about neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, areas: cognitive psychology and functional imaging, targeted is it possible to design a device for stimulating this brain delivery of neuropharmacological agents for operational— region that does not require the constant input of current? that is, not medically indicated—purposes, multimodal fusion of neural imagery and physiological data, new types scieNTiFic aNd TechNical Barriers To of averaging in fMRI, database aggregation and translation NeuroscieNce TechNoloGies for meta-analyses, and default mode networks. Chapter 2 discussed ethical and legal barriers to neuro- cognitive Psychology and Functional imaging science research and development. There are also scientific and technical barriers to the development of neuroscience Because fMRI has become so widely available, psy- technologies that could be overcome using advances in chologists are able to test cognitive models of the human unrelated fields of science and engineering. Advances in mind against functional data. Traditional cognitive psychol- the miniaturization of electronics and other components, for ogy developed and flourished well before scientists could example, would enable development and deployment of noninvasively image activity in the human brain, and some research-enabling imaging technologies needed to substantiate of them still deny the utility of knowing which areas of the and apply neuroscience hypotheses in the field. Such advances brain are active at particular times. They use the analogy that would also facilitate the design of less bulky and ungainly knowing which parts of a computer are consuming the most BMIs. Add biocompatibility to bulkiness as another barrier energy does not tell you what the software is doing. to the development of neural prostheses. Once this barrier is Be that as it may, fMRI continues to produce consistent overcome, biocompatible devices could serve as alternatives results on psychological fronts that cannot be dismissed, to more invasive monitoring and imaging techniques. and the imaging community is more and more accepting the Data fusion is yet another barrier. Neuroimaging data need for theoretical models of cognition (Owen et al., 2002; collected by various means will not realize their maximum Heuttel et al., 2004) such that the amount of functional data utility until different modalities can be fused. Additionally, available is overwhelming resources that could otherwise even though one may be able to fuse laboratory results, field- be used for experimentation. The Army should monitor the deployed equipment will have its own measurement quirks collaborative progress that is made among neuroscientists that must be taken into account when the task of fusing data for synergies that may reveal possible future opportunities is transferred from the laboratory to the field. for applications. Possibly the greatest challenge for the Army is to ensure that its institutional expertise—in, for example, analysis Targeted delivery of Neuropharmacological agents for modalities and data fusion techniques—resides in individuals operational Purposes of all ages. Overcoming this barrier should be a major goal for the Army. The committee observed that much of the An important technology trend is improvement in the neuroscience expertise in the Army is possessed by late- ability to deliver pharmacologic agents to specific brain career scientists without mid- and early-career backup. This locations in the nervous system in a controlled manner. It is failure to diversify agewise puts the Army at the risk of losing hypothesized that targeted delivery mechanisms will open substantial institutional intellectual equity each time a senior up significant new classes of compounds for use above and neuroscientist retires. In-house expertise is crucial for leading beyond those considered safe for oral ingestion. Research research in Army-specific areas, such as understanding the in this area is of two kinds: (1) the identification of specific amount of effort involved in the measurement of ground- functional targets in the brain and spinal cord and (2) the truth,10 knowing whether it is possible to train up to an arbitrary creation of delivery systems that can place pharmacologic capacity (versus improving a human–machine interface, for agents at these targets. Besides ingestion, there are three example), and recognizing further technology opportunities. routes by which drugs can be delivered to the nervous sys- tem: by injection, inhalation, and topical application. With 10Ground-truth workload is an objective measure of brain activity based all of these routes it is important to know whether the objec- on functional neuroimaging or a corresponding field-deployable biomarker. tive is to enter tissue, which is an aggregation of cells, or to The phrase “ground truth” relates to the fact that most measures of workload enter cells directly. For any intravenously delivered agent, are based on subjective response to questions such as “On a scale of 1 to 10, how busy did you feel?” This objective measure is a goal for the future.

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88 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS a key issue is passing the blood-brain barrier. Several new The ability to record information from large numbers modes of drug delivery are now being studied, including of neurons using multielectrode recording techniques, local encapsulation in nanoparticles and scaffolding in polymer field potentials, and two-photon imaging now makes it systems (Lee et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2008). Site-specific possible to understand in greater detail the functional and delivery can now be controlled more precisely by targeted anatomical significance of specific brain regions. Similarly, activation and inactivation. It is apparent that this is a very the ability to carry out large-scale simulations of neural active area of research that will see many improvements models makes it possible to guide experimental research in a over the next several years. Delivery systems are key tech- principled way using data from experimental measurements nologies that the Army should monitor rather than invest to facilitate the choice of model parameters. In this regard, in directly. the two arms of computational neuroscience, biophysical and algorithmic, can work in concert with experimental neuroscience at all levels to help integrate information into multimodal Fusion of Neural imagery and computational theories of the brain and to validate these Physiological data theories. Another trend is the collection of data from several New algorithms will improve quantitative understand- physiological monitors concurrently or the fusing of data ing of the information in experimental data. Gaining more from separate sources into a common paradigm. An impor- insight into how the brain computes will undoubtedly bring tant trend in many imaging centers is the development of new approaches to the design of algorithms for machine functional neuroimaging tools to fuse multimodal images learning and computation applicable to a broad range of using various combinations of fMRI, DOT, EEG, and MEG fields. As an example, a key area for research in neural measurements. An EEG-based instrument has recently been signal processing will be algorithms to facilitate BMIs. These commercialized to allow data from MEG and EEG or fMRI algorithms must be able to make use of the broad range of and EEG to be collected simultaneously. These imaging and neural signals (neural spike trains, local field potentials, electrophysiological measurements can also be combined electroencephalograph recordings) to control the interactions with other physiological variables such as heart rate, GSR, between humans and machines. This is a very challenging eye movements, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. task, because the output of the control strategy—for instance, Other instruments combine advanced anatomical data with a particular movement—may be clear, but how the control functional data. Examples are the combinations of com- strategy is represented and carried out in the brain and ner- puterized tomography with positron emission tomography vous system is less apparent. (PET) (for which instrumentation is available), MRI with Algorithms must be developed hand in hand with efforts PET (a prototype instrument is in use, commercial rollout by neurophysiologists to reverse engineer the mechanisms expected in 2010), and diffusion tensor imaging with fMRI. of neural control. It is also important that this algorithm Moreover, the higher resolutions of MRI and computerized research stays in close contact with the field of control tomography are leading to higher-resolution mapping of theory, where similar algorithms have been developed to cortical thickness. solve problems related to entirely manmade control systems. The Army needs to monitor these advanced neuro- This research will lead to new algorithms and most likely imaging techniques. Improvements are such that studies new theories and practical approaches to the design and that were completed in the past decade or so are being implementation of control strategies. Some BMIs might be repeated and are yielding much different results than the designed for motor prosthetic purposes, others for control of earlier studies. The use of two or more imaging modalities deep-brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease, obsessive simultaneously or in sequence offers the exciting prospect compulsive disorder, and depression. Each problem has its of being able to track the dynamics of brain activity on unique features and control requirements that will need to be different spatial and temporal scales. To do this, it will be studied in detail to understand how the relevant brain region necessary to develop an integrated, dynamic computational functions, so that optimal algorithms and, eventually, optimal framework based on the biophysical, physiological, and therapeutic strategies can be devised. anatomical characteristics that can be imaged by these modalities. The modality components of this computational New Types of averaging in fmri framework could be identified and validated through a series of cross-modal experiments. Some of this work can Group averages still dominate the literature, with studies be done using high-speed computing resources to design utilizing the average activation pattern of 5-10 subjects and test the dynamic data analysis algorithms on simulated for a given paradigm. The current trend is to use at least (and, later, experimental) data from multimodal imaging. 10-12 subjects and construct a second level of analysis to This cross-modality validation is especially important for produce a random-effects average. In a group average, single the Army in that it directly feeds into the understanding of subjects may dominate data sets and skew the results. In a surrogate measures. random-effects average, a single subject’s data are treated

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89 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS as a fluctuation from the population average. Another type of the brain. This network is seen to consist of “naturally of analysis is a conjunction of activated areas in a sample connected” areas and to include functional connectivity of subjects: This type of analysis produces a map based on and effective connectivity as well as the difference between common (overlapping) regions in each subject’s activation the two. The topic is being pursued by those interested in map. It is expected that additional methods will emerge that neuroergonomics, and those promoting the topic hypothesize promote understanding of brain function common to all as that, ultimately, the efficient use of neural resources takes well as individual and group variations in brain function. advantage of these default connections. This work could This trend should be monitored for possible future Army have implications for cognitive fatigue, learning, and perfor- applications in selection and assessment. mance optimization. Unlike research in connectomics, this research is noninvasive and is conducted on humans. The Army should monitor this trend for proof that such a default database aggregation and Translation for meta-analyses network overlies our physical neural connections. Several groups are sponsoring the creation of results databases and proposing standard formats for brain func- PrioriTies For army iNvesTmeNT tional and anatomical imaging data, including multimodal techniques. Some are based on cortical surface maps, some The committee was tasked to identify technology devel- on Montreal Neurologic Institute coordinate statistical opment opportunities and to recommend those worthy of parametric mapping, and some are based on both. Clearing- investment in the near, medium, and far terms. These tech- houses are under construction for analysis tools (National nology development opportunities, all of which have been Institutes of Health Blueprint for Neuroscience Research) discussed earlier in this chapter, were judged to be “high- and other resources. The Army can leverage these resources priority” (Table 7-1), “priority” (Table 7-2), and “possible for meta-analyses of large data samples to seek out opportu- future opportunities” (Table 7-3). nities for further research. The committee asked four questions as it decided which opportunities to include in the tables: Should the Army fund the technology? Should the Army maintain expertise in the default mode Networks technology? Is it likely that the technology, if successful, will Since the work of Biswal et al. (1997), there has been have a significant impact? Will there need to be advances in expanding interest in the so-called default-mode network subordinate technologies, such as robust, ruggedized sensors TABLE 7-1 High-Priority Opportunities for Army Investment in Neuroscience Technologies (Recommendation 14) Current Investment (L, M, or H) Time Framea Technology Opportunity ME RE Commercial Academic Field-deployable biomarkers of neural state x x Ongoing L M In-helmet EEG for brain–machine interface x x Medium term M L Signal processing and multimodal data fusion, including imaging x x Ongoing M H modalities such as MRI, fMRI, DTI, DSI, PET, and MEG and physiological measures such as heartbeat, interbeat intervals, GSR, optical computer recognition, eye tracking, and pupilometry Soldier models and biomarkers for sleep x Ongoing M M Vertical fMRI x Medium term L L Fatigue prediction models x Medium term L M Behavioral measures of fatigue x Medium term M L Prospective biomarkers for predictive measures of soldier response to x x Medium term L L environmental stress, including hypoxic and thermal challenges NIRS/DOT x x Medium term L L Biomedical standards and models for head impact protection, including x x Medium term M M torso protection from blast Threat assessment augmentation x Medium term M M fMRI paradigms of military interest x Ongoing L M NOTE: ME, mission-enabling; RE, research-enabling; L/M/H, low, medium, or high; EEG, electroencephalography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; DTI, diffuse tensor imaging; DSI, diffusion spectrum imaging; PET, positron emission tomography; MEG, magnetoencephalography; NIRS, near-infrared spectroscopy; DOT, diffuse optical tomography; GSR, galvanic skin response. aIn this column, “medium term” means between 5 and 10 years and “ongoing” means that results will be available within 5 years, but continuing investment is recommended to stay at the forefront of the technology. SOURCE: Committee-generated.

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90 OPPORTUNITIeS IN NeUROSCIeNCe fOR fUTURe ARMY APPLICATIONS TABLE 7-2 Priority Opportunities for Army Investment in Neuroscience Technologies (Recommendation 15) Current Investment (L, M, or H) Time Framea Technology Opportunity ME RE Commercial Academic Haptic feedback with VR x Medium term H L Augmented reality (virtual overlay onto real world) x x Medium term H H In-helmet EEG for cognitive state detection and threat assessment x x Medium term L M Information workload management x Far term L M Time-locked, in-magnet VR and monitoring for fMRI x Medium term L M Immersive, in-magnet virtual reality x Near term L M EEG physiology x x Far term L H Uses of TMS for attention enhancement x Medium term L M In-vehicle TMS deployment x Far term L L Heartbeat variability x x Near and medium term L H Galvanic skin response x x Near and medium term H L NOTE: ME, mission-enabling; RE, research-enabling; L/M/H, low, medium, or high; VR, virtual reality; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation. aIn this column, “near term” means within 5 years, “medium term” means between 5 and 10 years, and “far term” means 10-20 years. SOURCE: Committee-generated. TABLE 7-3 Possible Future Opportunities (Neuroscience Areas Worthy of Monitoring for Future Army Investment) Current Investment (L, M, or H) Time Framea Technology Opportunity ME RE Commercial Academic Brain–computer interface system (direct) x Far term H H Imaging cognition x Far term L H Neuropharmacological technology x Far term M M Advanced fMRI data collection x Medium term M M Averaging methodology for fMRI x Medium term L M Brain database aggregation x Far term M M Default mode networks x x Medium term L H Inverse MRI x Medium term L M Low-field MRI x x Far term L M Uses of TMS for brain network inhibition x Far term L M Safety of multiple exposures to TMS x Medium term M M In-helmet TMS deployment x Far term L L Connectomics x Far term L M Atomic magnetometers x x Far term M M NOTE: ME, mission-enabling; RE, research-enabling; L/M/H, low, medium, or high; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; and TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation. aIn this column, “medium term” means between 5 and 10 years and “far term” means 10-20 years. SOURCE: Committee-generated. and noise-filtering algorithms, before the technology can be instrumental in assisting the warfighter or commander in an implemented? operational mission or in a training or assessment mission. The committee considered all of the topics in Tables 7-1 It is research-enabling (RE column) if it is instrumental in and 7-2 worthy of immediate investment but left up to the filling a critical gap in current research capability. Research- Army their relative prioritization within each group. Initial enabling instruments are expected to be brought into service priorities might depend, for instance, on the relative impor- on a smaller scale to study and evaluate warfighter or com- tance to the Army of the applications served; these priorities mander performance, perhaps in the laboratory, perhaps in might then change based on research progress. As defined simulated environments. The research is expected to shed at the very beginning of this chapter, a technology is catego- neuroscientific light onto current or future Army training rized as mission-enabling (ME column in the tables) if it is and doctrine and to yield concrete suggestions to improve

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9 NeUROSCIeNCe TeCHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIeS warfighter performance. Note that a technology may be both progress. Table 7-3 lists possible future opportunities for mission-enabling and research-enabling. consideration by the Army. For each opportunity, the Time Frame column gives the In addition to recommending that the Army pursue the committee’s estimate of the time needed for development and listed opportunities, the committee recommends that the an idea of when a particular technology will be fielded—that Army enhance its existing in-house resources and research is, the duration of the investment before a product or instru - capabilities. This would ensure that the Army has mecha- ment can be brought into service. The Current Investment nisms for interacting with the academic and commercial column lists the source, academic sector or commercial, and communities engaged in relevant areas of research and tech- the level of funding being brought to bear on the particular nology development, to monitor progress and decide when technology in its envisioned Army application. Commercial future advances in neuroscience technology developments investment comprises large investments by industry in for- would merit Army investment. profit ventures. Academic investment comprises investments by various civilian funding agencies such as the National reFereNces Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation in Biswal, B.B., J. Van Kylen, and J.S. Hyde. 1997. Simultaneous assessment university (or other academic) research. of flow and BOLD signals in resting-state functional connectivity maps. A high (H) level of current investment reflects sufficient NMR in Biomedicine 10(4-5): 165-170. external investment to develop the technology to the point Blankenburg, F., C. Ruff, S. Bestmann, O. Josephs, R. Deichman, O. where it can be used for Army applications without addi- Bjoertomt, and J. Driver. 2008. Right parietal cortex and top-down tional Army investment, although some funding might be visuospatial attention: Combined on-line rTMS and fMRI. Presented at HBM2008, the 14th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human required to adapt the technology to a specific application. A Brain Mapping, Melbourne, Australia, June 15-19. medium level of investment (M) reflects funding that would, Bourzac, K. 2008. TR10: Atomic magnetometers. Available at http://www. by itself, allow Army applications to be developed in two or technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?ch=specialsections&sc= three times the time shown (much slower development than emerging08&id=20239&a=. Last accessed July 21, 2008. with Army investment in addition to the external sources). Cheng, Y., J. Wang, T. Rao, Xi. He, and T. Xu. 2008. Pharmaceutical applica- tions of dendrimers: Promising nanocarriers for drug delivery. Frontiers A low investment level (L) means that there is little or no in Bioscience 13(4): 1447-1471. investment in Army applications and there will be no tech- Dinges, D.F., M.M. Mallis, G. Maislin, and J.W. Powell. 1998. Evaluation of nology advance toward an Army application without Army Techniques for Ocular Measurement as an Index of Fatigue and the Basis support. for Alertness Management, Report No. DOT HS 808 762. Springfield, For the high-priority and priority technology develop- Va.: National Technical Information Service. Genik, R.J., C.C. Green, F.X. Graydon, and R.E. Armstrong. 2005. ment opportunities (Tables 7-1 and 7-2), the committee Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: Generation- envisaged the Army employing a mix of internal research and after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging. Aviation, Space, personnel and externally supported research and personnel, and Environmental Medicine 76(Supplement 1): B208-B212. as exemplified for research in other fields by Army Univer- Goldiez, B.F., A.M. Ahmad, and P.A. Hancock. 2007. Effects of augmented sity Affiliated Research Centers (UARCs), Collaborative reality display settings on human wayfinding performance. IEEE Trans- actions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Technology Alliances (CTAs), Multidisciplinary University Reviews 37(5): 839-845. Research Initiatives (MURIs), and faculty fellowships. In Goldstone, R.L. 1998 Perceptual learning. Annual Review of Psychology addition, as has already been mentioned several times, the 49: 585-612. committee envisioned the Army would maintain a constant Greene, K. 2007a. Brain sensor for market research: A startup claims to level of expertise to monitor relevant areas of neuroscience read people’s minds while they view ads. Available at http://www. technologyreview.com/Biztech/19833/?a=f. Last accessed July 23, r esearch across the board. This would probably entail 2008. support from outside experts who would regularly report Greene, K. 2007b. Connecting your brain to the game: Using an EEG cap, on progress throughout neuroscience and who might be a startup hopes to change the way people interact with video games. members of a permanent body established to stay abreast of Available at http://www.technologyreview.com/Biztech/18276/?a=f. developments. Last accessed July 23, 2008. Hancock, P.A., and J.S. Warm. 1989. A dynamic model of stress and sus - Aside from distinguishing between priority and high- tained attention. Human Factors 31: 519-537. priority opportunities, the committee did not prioritize the Harris, W.C., P.A. Hancock, and S.C. Harris. 2005. Information process- technology opportunities within a particular table, and all ing changes following extended stress. Military Psychology 17(2): are recommended to receive some level of investment by 115-128. the Army. The opportunities in Table 7-1 are recommended Hirshberg, L.M., S. Chiu, and J.A. Frazier. 2005. Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: Overview and clinical per- for initial long-term (5 years or more) commitments. Those spective. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America in Table 7-2 are recommended for limited (2-3 year initial) 14(1): 1-19. commitments to augment the high-priority investments in Huettel, S.A., A.W. Song, and G. McCarthy. 2004. 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