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HARDBACK
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Taxon

Starting Date

Location

% Loss

Ref.

Bull shark

1973

North Carolina

99

Myers et al. (2007)

Sandbar shark

1976

North Carolina

87

Myers et al. (2007)

Coral reefs

Live coral cover

1977

Caribbean

80

Newman et al. (2006)

Live coral cover

1977

Caribbean

90

Gardner et al. (2003)

Live coral cover

1980–1982

Indo-West Pacific

46

Pandolfi and Jackson (2006)

Commercial sponges

1924

Florida

89

Lessios et al. (1984)

Diadema antillarum

1977

Caribbean

92

Aronson and Precht (2001)

Reef fish density

1977

Caribbean

90

Gardner et al. (2003)

Green turtle

1700s

Caribbean

>99

McClenachan and Cooper (2008)

Hawksbill turtle

1700s

Caribbean

>99

McClenachan and Cooper (2008)

Goliath grouper

1956

Florida Keys

96

McClenachan et al. (2007)

Large carnivores

Pristine

Global

85

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Small carnivores

Pristine

Global

61

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Large herbivores

Pristine

Global

87

Lewis (2002);Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Small herbivores

Pristine

Global

66

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Corals

Pristine

Global

61

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Suspension feeders

Pristine

Global

49

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

Seagrasses

Pristine

Global

50

Lewis (2002); Pandolfi et al. (2005)

NOTES: Starting dates are beginning of time series except in cases of estimated declines from the pristine, unexploited condition. See original references for details.

aSubmerged aquatic vegetation.



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