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Light of Evolution: Biodiversity and Extinction, for inviting us to participate and the participants of the colloquium for valuable discussion, which improved the content of this manuscript. This research was conducted as part of the “Exotic Species: A Source of Insight into Ecology, Evolution and Biogeography” Working Group at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, which is funded by National Science Foundation Grant DEB-0072909, the University of California, and the Santa Barbara campus.

APPENDIX: NATURALIZED VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES ON ISLANDS OVER TIME

Years listed below refer to the most recent survey or plant collection date and not to the date of publication of a manuscript, even though, in many cases, the collection and publication date are the same. Following each year, the number of naturalized species is indicated in parentheses. See Methods in the main text for a brief description of criteria used in tallying the number of naturalized species and Sax et al. (2002) for a thorough discussion of these criteria and data sources.


Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). 1898 (14), 1904 (21), 1993 (151).


Cocos (Keeling) Islands. 1836 (4), 1879 (13), 1888 (17), 1907 (18), 1987 (53).


Easter Island. 1911 (17), 1917 (31), 1991 (68).


Hawaiian Islands. 1886 (139), 2002 (1140). These values are taken directly from the literature.


Heron Island. Range-through data: 1927 (2), 1958 (12), 1960 (17), 1975 (22), 1984 (25), 1993 (25). Uncorrected data: 1927 (2), 1958 (12), 1960 (16), 1975 (22), 1984 (24), 1993 (25). Given Heron Island’s small size, range-through corrections are likely to overestimate the number of plants present in any single time step. For consistency of comparison among islands, range-through data were used in our analyses, but the differences here between methods are relatively minor.


Lord Howe Island. 1853 (6), 1870 (10), 1871 (11), 1875 (13), 1878 (15), 1882 (17), 1896 (18), 1898 (44), 1908 (45), 1913 (46), 1916 (47), 1920 (57), 1935 (58), 1936 (60), 1938 (69), 1944 (70), 1947 (81), 1948 (84), 1958 (85), 1962 (110), 1963 (125), 1965 (127), 1970 (139), 1971 (142), 1973 (143), 1974 (146), 1975 (150), 1976 (152), 1977 (158), 1978 (159), 1980 (162), 1981 (163), 1991 (179).



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