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FIGURE 7.6 (A) Compositional and (B) phylogenetic similarity of Acidobacteria communities at four taxonomic resolutions. The compositional and phylogenetic similarity between Acidobacteria communities significantly decreases with increasing elevational separation (Mantel test, P < 0.001) at all taxonomic resolutions presented. The slope of the decay of phylogenetic similarity between Acidobacteria communities is significantly steeper than predicted by a null model constrained by the decrease in taxon similarity (P < 0.05). As in Figure 7.3, lines represent an exponential model fit to the observed data.

FIGURE 7.6 (A) Compositional and (B) phylogenetic similarity of Acidobacteria communities at four taxonomic resolutions. The compositional and phylogenetic similarity between Acidobacteria communities significantly decreases with increasing elevational separation (Mantel test, P < 0.001) at all taxonomic resolutions presented. The slope of the decay of phylogenetic similarity between Acidobacteria communities is significantly steeper than predicted by a null model constrained by the decrease in taxon similarity (P < 0.05). As in Figure 7.3, lines represent an exponential model fit to the observed data.

2005) of ecological communities from sample data, but there are currently no estimators to predict phylogenetic richness, phylogenetic structure, or phylogenetic turnover from sample data. A new generation of estimators is needed for future comprehensive studies that examine taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity patterns in parallel.

As discussed by others, a promising approach to understanding elevational diversity patterns (Rahbek, 2005), and more generally biodiversity patterns (Green and Bohannan, 2006), is to conduct intertaxonomic comparisons to elucidate the spatial and taxonomic scales and degree of sampling effort over which microbial biodiversity relationships approach those of macroorganisms. Such an approach is ambitious, but increasingly tractable as molecular approaches advance our ability to comprehensively characterize biodiversity. Here, we have shown that across an elevation gradient, plant and microbial communities exhibit different patterns of diversity. Phylogenetic-based analyses suggest that the evolutionary and ecological processes driving the biogeographic patterns may differ significantly between these two domains of life. Further work is needed to link the phylogenetic patterns to functional differences among plant and bacterial taxa. Such comparative analyses are needed to provide the empirical



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